စၠတ်ထဝ် ကၟိန်ဍုင်

နူ ဝဳကဳပဳဒဳယာ
အ​ညွှန်း​သို့ ခုန်ကူးရန် ရှာဖွေရန် ခုန်ကူးမည်
စၠတ်ထဝ်ကၟိန်ဍုင်
Assembly of the Union 
Coat of arms or logo
ဂကူဗီုပြင်
ဂကူဗီုပြင်
Bicameral 
စၠတ်ထဝ်ဂမၠိုင် စၠတ်ထဝ် ကောန်ဂကူ
History
မဒက်ပတန် ၃၁ ဇာန်နဝါရဳ ၂၀၁၁ (၂၀၁၁-၀၁-၃၁) 
Preceded by ကိုပ်ကၠာ
က္ဍိုပ်သကိုပ်ဂမၠိုင်
ညးအခေါင်ဟီု စၠတ်ထဝ်ကၟိန်ဍုင်
T Khun Myat [၁] , သၠးပွး
စနူ ၁ အဝ်ဂေတ် ၂၀၁၈
ညးအခေါင်ဟီု စၠတ်ထဝ်ကောန်ဂကူ
Mahn Win Khaing Than
စနူ ၃ ဖေဖဝ်ဝါရဳ ၂၀၁၆
ညးအခေါင်ဟီု စၠတ်ထဝ်ညးဍုင်ကွာန်
T Khun Myat , သၠးပွး
စနူ ၂၂ မာတ် ၂၀၁၈
က္ဍိုပ်သကိုပ် ဗော်ဒစဵုဒစး
 , USDP
စနူ  
 
လဒက်ပတန်
ခုင် ၆၆၄
စၠတ်ထဝ်ကောန်ဂကူ ၂၂၄
စၠတ်ထဝ် ညးဍုင်ကွာန် ၄၄၀
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စၠတ်ထဝ်ကောန်ဂကူ ဂကောံ ပရေင်ဍုင်ကွာန်ဂမၠိုင်
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စၠတ်ထဝ်ကောန်ဂကူ ကမ္မတဳဂမၠိုင်  
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ကမ္မတဳ ပံင်ကောံ
 
သဘင်မာဲဂမၠိုင်
စၠတ်ထဝ်ကောန်ဂကူ သၞောတ်မာဲ
 
စၠတ်ထဝ်ညးဍုင်ကွာန် သၞောတ်မာဲ
 
စၠတ်ထဝ်ကောန်ဂကူ သဘင်မာဲ လက်ကရဴအိုတ်
၈ နဝ်ဝေမ်ပါ ၂၀၁၅ 
စၠတ်ထဝ်ညးဍုင်ကွာန် သဘင်မာဲ လက်ကရဴအိုတ်
၈ နဝ်ဝေမ်ပါ ၂၀၁၅ 
ဒၞာဲ ကောံဓရီု
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စၠတ်ထဝ်ကၟိန်ဍုင်၊ နေပျဳဒဝ်
ဝေပ်သာက်
pyidaungsu.hluttaw.mm 

စၠတ်ထဝ်ကၟိန်ဍုင် (Assembly of the Union) (Burmese: ပြည်ထောင်စု လွှတ်တော် [pjìdàʊɴzṵ l̥ʊʔtɔ̀]se: ပြည်ထောင်စု လွှတ်ဝွံ ဒှ်ဒတန်ပတန်သၞောဝ် နကဵုကဆံင် အလုံကၟိန်ဍုင်ဗၟာ (နကဵုယၟု ပ္ဍဲသၞောဝ် ကၟိန်ဍုင်ပံင်ကောံသမတ ဗၟာ Republic of the Union of Myanmar) မဒက်ပ္တန် နကဵုသၞောဝ်လဒက်ပတန်ဍုင် ၂၀၀၈။ စၠတ်ထဝ်ကၟိန်ဍုင်ဂှ် ဒက်ပ္တန်လဝ် နကဵု စၠတ်ထဝ်ၜါ၊ စၠတ်ထဝ် ကောန်ဂကူ (အမျိုးသားလွှတ်တော်) (House of Nationalities)၊ နွံ ခုင် ၂၂၄၊ တုဲ စၠတ်ထဝ်ညးဍုင်ကွာန် (ပြည်သူံလွှတ်တော်) (House of Representatives) နွံ ခုင် ၄၄၀။

ဇၟပ်ပ် တွဵုရး ကေုာံ ရးဒေသဇၞော် သီုဖအိုတ် ၁၄ ဂှ် နွံကဵု စၠတ်ထဝ်ဒေသအိုတ်ရ။

စၠတ်ထဝ်ကၟိန်ဍုင် ဂှ် နွံပ္ဍဲ ဂအာင်ပါလဳမာန် ပၞောဝ်တိုက် ၃၁-မ ဂှ် ဒှ်တိုက်မွဲရ။[၂] တိုက် ၃၁-မ ဂှ် ပစၞး ကု ၃၁ ဘုံ ပ္ဍဲကဵု စက္ကဝါဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာတုဲ သြိုင်လဝ်ရ။ ဂအာင်ပါလဳမာန်ဂှ် နွံပ္ဍဲဇေယျသဳရိ ပ္ဍဲနေပျဳဒဝ်။[၃]

အမာတ်စၠတ်ထဝ်တအ်ဂှ် ကၠုင်နူ မၞိဟ်မဒုင်ရုဲစှ်လဝ် နကဵုသဘင်မာဲ ကေုာံ မၞိဟ်စၞး ဒပ်ပၞာန်ဂမၠိုင်ရ။[၄]

ဝင်အတိက်[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

စၠတ်ထဝ် နကဵုဘာသာဗၟာ လွှတ်တော် ဟီုဂှ် ဒှ်ဝေါဟာရ မကၠုင်နူ ခေတ်ဨကရာဇ် မဒှ်သ္ၚိစၠတ်သၟိင်ဨကရာဇ်တုဲ ကၠုင်နူ အရေဝ်မန် စၠတ်ထဝ် မြဴသာ်ဝွံ ပ္ဍဲအဘိဓာန်ဗၟာတြေံ ဗၟံက်လဝ်ရ။ ဆဂး နကဵုလညာတ်မွဲပၠန် အရာမဒှ်မာန်အိုတ်ဂှ် လွှတ်တော် ဟီုဂှ် ဒှ်အရေဝ်ဗၟာ ဗလးအသံပါင်ဨကရာဇ်ရ။ ပ္ဍဲကဵု အခိုက် အခေတ်ဨကရာဇ်ဗၟာတေအ်မ္ဂး ဨကရာဇ်ဂှ် ညးမိက်ဂွံပ္တိတ် သၞောတ်မွဲမွဲမ္ဂး ညးတိတ်ကၠုင် ဇရေင်ဒၞာဲ မကဵုအမိင်ဂှ်တုဲ ညးဟီုရ။ ပ္ဍဲဒၞာဲဂှ်မ္ဂး ဂကောံအမာတ် သေနာပတိတအ် ကော်တုဲ မင်ကလင်အိုတ်ရ။ အခိင်ကာလ ဨကရာဇ် မတိတ်ဟီုဂှ် နကဵု ဘာသာဗၟာမ္ဂး ညးကော်စ "လွှတ်တော်မူအခါ" (အခါကာလ မဗလးအသံပါင်) ရ။ ဝေါဟာရမန် စၠတ်ထဝ် ဂှ် ၜိုန်ရ လညာတ်နူမဝေါဟာရဗၟာ လွှတ်တော် ပါလုပ်ဒၟံင်ကီုလေဝ် ပ္ဍဲခေတ်ဨကရာဇ်တေအ်ဂှ် နန်သွက်ဂွံဖျေဟ်သၞောဝ်၊ ဨကရာဇ်တအ် မပ္တိတ်အသံပါင်တအ်ဂှ် ဟိုတ်မနွံကဵု ကအ်စၠတ် တုဲ သ္ၚိစၠတ် (ဝါ) သ္ၚိကၠတ် မြဴသာ်ဝွံ ကော်စရ။ အရာမစပ်ကဵု ဨကရာဇ်တအ်မ္ဂး စုတ် "တော်" တုဲ မဟီုဗီုကဵု ဗၟာဂှ် ပ္ဍဲမန်ဟွံမဲ။ ဥပမာ နေပြည်တော် (ဒမံင်ဒတန်ဨကရာဇ်)၊ အမိန်တော် (အမိင်အသံဨကရာဇ်)။ ဟိုတ်ဂှ်ရ အရေဝ်ဗၟာ "လွှတ်တော်" ဝွံ ကၠုင်နူ အရေဝ်မန် ဟွံသေင်၊ ဒှ်အရေဝ်ဗၟာဇေတ်တ်ရ။

အခိုက် စၠတ်ထဝ်ဏအ် နွံကၠုင် နူကဵုခေတ်ဗုကာံရဂှ် ညးတအ်ပတှ်ေကေတ်ရ။[၅]

During the Konbaung dynasty, the hluttaw was the centre of government and the kingdom's national administrative body, divided into three branches, namely fiscal, executive, and judicial (Since the colonial times, hluttaw has been used to describe a parliament or legislative body.) The Byedaik (ဗြဲတိုက်) acted as the Privy Council, maintaining the inner affairs of the royal court, whereas the Hluttaw managed the kingdom's government. The Hluttaw, as tradition, also had the duty of selecting the heir-apparent, whenever the incumbent king did not select one.

In the Konbaung dynasty, the Hluttaw was in session for 6 hours daily, from 6 to 9 am, and from noon to 3 pm, attended by ministers (မင်းကြီး, Mingyi), ministers of third rank (ဝန်ထောက်, Wundauk), and head clerks (စာရေးကြီး, Sayegyi), as well as interior ministers (အတွင်းဝန်, Atwin Wun), who sat in the Byedaik.[၆] It was tradition for the king to appoint four ministers, four interior ministers and four officers.

ဗြိတိတ်ဗာမာ[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

On 2 January 1923, with the enactment of the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, Burma became a Governor's Province with a partially elected legislative council, the Legislative Council of Burma, consisting of 103 seats, with 80 filled by election.[၇]

The 1935 Government of Burma Act established the Legislature of Burma. During this period, the colonial Legislature consisted of two chambers, the 36-seat Senate and the 132-seat House of Representatives.

Union of Burma[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

From 1947 to 1962, under the 1947 Constitution, Burma's legislature, called the Union Parliament, consisted of two chambers, the 125-seat Lumyozu Hluttaw (the Chamber of Nationalities) and the 250-seat Pyithu Hluttaw; (the Chamber of Deputies), whose seat numbers were determined by the population size of respective constituencies.

Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

From 1962 to 1974, there was no functional hluttaw in existence, as the ruling government was the socialist Union Revolutionary Council (RC).

From 1974 to 1988, under the 1974 Constitution, Burma's legislative branch was a one-party rubber stamp legislature consisting of a unicameral chamber, the Pyithu Hluttaw (the People's Assembly), represented by members of the Burma Socialist Programme Party. Each term was four years. (In August 2010, the old Hluttaw complex on Yangon's Pyay Road used by Gen. Ne Win's military government was slated for occupation by Yangon Division government offices.)[၈]

Union of Myanmar[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Between 1988 and 2011, there was no functional hluttaw, as the ruling government was the State Peace and Development Council.

Composition[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

ထာမ်ပလိက်:Pyidaungsu Hluttaw compositionThe Pyidaungsu Hluttaw is a bicameral body made up of a 440-seat House of Representatives (Pyithu Hluttaw) and the 224-seat House of Nationalities (Amyotha Hluttaw). The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw consists of 664 members total. 75% of MPs (498 members) are directly elected by voters, while the remaining 25% (166 members) are military personnel appointed by the Defence Services' Commander-in-Chief.[၉] This policy is similar to Indonesia's New Order model (as part of the dwifungsi doctrine), which guaranteed a number of parliamentary seats to military appointees.[၁၀]

Amyotha Hluttaw[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

The Amyotha Hluttaw is the upper house of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, with 12 seats accorded to each Region or State for a total of 168 directly elected seats. Of the 224 seats in the house, the remaining 56 are military appointees nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services.

Pyithu Hluttaw[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

The Pyithu Hluttaw is the lower house of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, with seats accorded to each of the 330 townships in the country. Of the 440 seats in this body, 330 are directly elected and 110 are military appointees nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services.

Elections[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Burmese elections are held under universal suffrage for all Burmese citizens above the age of 18 and on a given constituency's roll of eligible voters. Voters are constitutionally guaranteed the right to vote via secret ballot. However, members of religious orders (including members of the Buddhist Sangha), prisoners, mentally unsound persons, and indebted persons are not allowed to vote for members of Parliament. Voting is not compulsory.[၁၁] Burmese elections practise the First-past-the-post voting system (winner takes all), in which the candidate who receives the highest number of votes is elected.[၁၂]

In the 2010 election, state media reported a voter turnout of 77.26%.[၁၃] Advance voting was also widely practised, with military personnel and their family members, as well as civil servants, police force personnel and other state employees instructed to vote in advance.[၁၄] This was in violation of the 2010 electoral laws, which only allow advance voting for eligible voters who are away from their constituencies as well as overseas Burmese citizens. In some constituencies, up to 95% of cast ballots were done in advance. An estimated 10% of votes (6 million) were cast in advance.[၁၅] There were also reports of multiple voter fraud, voter manipulation, ghost voting and coerced voting, in which individuals were pressured to vote for Union Solidarity and Development Party candidates by officials.[၁၆][၁၇]

Term[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Chamber of Deputies (Pyithu Hluttaw) in Post-independence Burma

The two houses of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw are simultaneously elected, with members of parliament (MPs) serving five year terms. Ministerial nominees, who are selected from the pool of elected MPs, vacate their parliamentary seats. By-elections, determined by the Union Election Commission, are held to elect these vacant seats.

The first regular session of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw must be convened within 15 days of the commencement of the Pyithu Hluttaw's first session. At least one regular session must be held per year, and subsequent sessions must be held within 12 months of each other. Special or emergency sessions can be convened by the President. Parliamentary sessions are only valid if 25% or more MPs are present.

The first session of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw was held from January to March 2011, while the second was held from 22 August 2011 to.[၁၈] Journalists were not allowed to attend the first session. However, the Ministry of Information announced on 12 August 2011 that they would be permitted to attend the second session.[၁၉]

See also[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

  • Politics of Myanmar
  • List of legislatures by country
  • State and Region Hluttaws

References[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

  1. Nyein Zaw Lin။ "New parliament speaker assumes post"၊ 2 August 2018။ 
  2. Egreteau, Renaud (2017-10-17). "Power, Cultural Nationalism, and Postcolonial Public Architecture: Building a Parliament House in Post-Independence Myanmar" (in en). Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 55 (4): 531–550. doi:10.1080/14662043.2017.1323401. ISSN 1743-9094. 
  3. Aung Zaw။ "No Escape from the 31 Planes of Existence"၊ February 2010။ 
  4. Soe Than Lynn။ "Pyidaungsu Hluttaw to join International Parliamentary Union"၊ Myanmar Times၊ 26 March 2012။ 27 March 2012 တင်နိဿဲဏအ် စၟဳစၟတ်တုဲ 
  5. Maung Htin Aung (1967). A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press, 50–54 
  6. Taw Sein Ko. Burmese Sketches 
  7. Maung Maung (2012). Burma’s Constitution. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9789401188906 
  8. "ရန်ကုန်တိုင်း စုပေါင်းရုံးမှ ဌာနအချို့ ပြည်လမ်းမပေါ်ရှိ ယခင်လွှတ်တော် အဆောက်အအုံသို့ ပြောင်းရွှေ့မည်" (in Burmese)၊ 23 August 2010။ 23 August 2010 တင်နိဿဲဏအ် စၟဳစၟတ်တုဲ 
  9. "New Burma constitution published"။ 
  10. Seekins, Donald M. (2006). Historical dictionary of Burma (Myanmar). Scarecrow Press, 321. ISBN 978-0-8108-5476-5 
  11. "Tensions Cloud Myanmar Vote"၊ Wall Street Journal။ 21 August 2011 တင်နိဿဲဏအ် စၟဳစၟတ်တုဲ 
  12. ELECTORAL SYSTEM. Alternative Asean Network on Burma. Retrieved on 21 August 2011
  13. "Election turnout higher than 1990"၊ 13 December 2010။ 
  14. "Advance Voting Abuses Rampant"၊ 4 November 2010။ 
  15. "Myanmar’s Post-Election Landscape" (7 March 2011). Jakarta: International Crisis Group. 
  16. "Burma Election 2010: An Election of Generals" (February 2011). Bangkok: Thai Action Committee for Democracy in Burma. [dead link]
  17. "Burmese junta rigged vote through advanced voting"၊ 11 November 2011။ 
  18. "First Pyidaungsu Hluttaw second regular session summoned" (1 August 2011). 
  19. "Journalists allowed to attend hluttaw sessions: government"၊ 15 August 2011။ 21 August 2011 တင်နိဿဲဏအ် စၟဳစၟတ်တုဲ 

External links[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

19°46′28″N 96°6′13″E / 19.77444°N 96.10361°E / 19.77444; 96.10361