ရီု:IPA/Japanese

နူ ဝဳကဳပဳဒဳယာ
အ​ညွှန်း​သို့ ခုန်ကူးရန် ရှာဖွေရန် ခုန်ကူးမည်

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Japanese language and Okinawan pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-ja}}, {{IPAc-ja}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Examples in the charts are Japanese words transliterated according to the Hepburn romanization system.

See Japanese phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Japanese.

Consonants
IPA Example English approximation
Kana Romanization
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". しょ, , ァージョン basho, kabin, vājon bug
びょうき byōki beauty
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". と, ひょ hito, hyō hue
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". た, っしょ shita, isshō sheep
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". うも, dōmo, dōdō doctor
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".[၁] っと, , ッズ zutto, zenzen, kizzu[၂] cards
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".[၁] ぶん, ょじょ, ッジ jibun, jojo, ejji[၂] jeep
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". fuji roughly like phew!
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".[၃] っこう, りん, んこう gakkō, ringo, ginkō goat
ɡʲ ぎょ kigyō argue
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". ん, はは hon, haha hat
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". くしゃ, yakusha, yuzu yacht
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". る, っき kuru, hakki skate
きょうかい, っきょ kyōkai, kekkyoku skew
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". かん, ぱい, もんも mikan, senpai, monmon much
みゃ myaku mute
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". っとう, たん nattō, kantan not
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". わ, んにゃ, ちょう niwa, konnyaku, kinchō canyon
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".[၃] ご, きょく ringo, nankyoku pink
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". にほ nihon roughly like long
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". ン, たんぽぽ pan, tanpopo span
っぴょ happyō spew
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". く, roku, sora American better
ɾʲ りょうり ryōri American party
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". る, さっそ suru, sassō soup
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". べる, とって taberu, totte stop
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". かい, っちゃ chikai, ketchaku[၂] itchy
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". なみ, っつ tsunami, ittsui[၂] cats
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".[၄] さび wasabi roughly like was
ɰ̃[၅] いき, , しん fun'iki, denwa, anshin sin
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".[၁] , aza, tsuzuku zoo
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".[၁] かい, じょ mijikai, jojo vision
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". あつ atsu'! uh-oh
Vowels
IPA Example English approximation
Kana Romanization
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". aru father
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". eki bet
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". iru meet
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".[၆] shita whispered meet
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol". oni story
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".[၇] なぎ unagi shoot
Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".[၆] きやき sukiyaki whispered shoot
Suprasegmentals
IPA Description Example English approximation
ː Long vowel hyōmei, ojiisan re-equalize
Pitch drop[၈] [kaꜜki] (牡蠣, 'oyster'),
[kakiꜜ] (, 'fence')
/ˈmæri/ (marry),
/məˈr/ (Marie)
. Syllabification nin'i [ɲiɰ̃.i] higher /ˈh.ər/

Notes[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

  1. ၁.၀ ၁.၁ ၁.၂ ၁.၃ Voiced fricatives [Script error: No such module "IPA symbol"., Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".] are generally pronounced as affricates [Script error: No such module "IPA symbol"., Script error: No such module "IPA symbol".] in word-initial positions and after the moraic nasal /N/ (ထာမ်ပလိက်:IPAblink before [dz] and ထာမ်ပလိက်:IPAblink before [dʑ]) or the sokuon /Q/ (spelled ッ, only in loanwords). Actual realizations of these sounds vary (see Yotsugana).
  2. ၂.၀ ၂.၁ ၂.၂ ၂.၃ When an affricate consonant is geminated, only the closure component of it is repeated: [kiddzɯ], [eddʑi], [ittsɯi], [kettɕakɯ].
  3. ၃.၀ ၃.၁ A declining number of speakers pronounce word-medial ထာမ်ပလိက်:IPAslink as ထာမ်ပလိက်:IPAblink ထာမ်ပလိက်:Harvcol, but /ɡ/ is always represented by [ɡ] in this system.
  4. [ɰ], romanized w, is the consonant equivalent of the vowel [ɯ], which is pronounced with varying degrees of rounding, depending on dialect.
  5. The syllable-final n (moraic nasal) is pronounced as some kind of nasalized vowel before a vowel, semivowel ([j, ɰ]) or fricative ([ɸ, s, ɕ, ç, h]). [ɰ̃] is a conventional notation undefined for the exact place of articulation ထာမ်ပလိက်:Harvcol.
  6. ၆.၀ ၆.၁ Close vowels [i, ɯ] become voiceless [i̥, ɯ̥] when short and surrounded by voiceless consonants within a word. When the second consonant is [ɸ], [ç] or [h], or when both consonants are fricatives (including the second component of an affricate), devoicing is much less likely to occur ထာမ်ပလိက်:Harvcol, so vowels in such environments are not transcribed as voiceless (nor are word-final or non-close vowels, whose devoicing is also less consistent). Where close vowels that would be devoiced according to the above rules occur in succession, however, usually whichever is accented or, if neither is, the second remains voiced ထာမ်ပလိက်:Harvcol, so transcribe them accordingly: [kɯꜜɕi̥kɯmo, tsɯ̥kɯɕi]. These rules may be overridden by citing a reliable source that marks devoicing, such as ထာမ်ပလိက်:Harvcoltxt or ထာမ်ပလိက်:Harvcoltxt, if the word being transcribed appears in it.
  7. [ɯ], romanized u, exhibits varying degrees of rounding depending on dialect. In Tokyo dialect, it is either unrounded or compressed ထာမ်ပလိက်:IPAblink, meaning the sides of the lips are held together without horizontal protrusion, unlike protruded ထာမ်ပလိက်:IPAblink.
  8. A pitch drop may occur only once per word and does not occur in all words. The mora before a pitch drop has a high pitch. When it occurs at the end of a word, the following grammatical particle has a low pitch.

References[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

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