သိခဘာသာ

နူ ဝဳကဳပဳဒဳယာ
အ​ညွှန်း​သို့ ခုန်ကူးရန် ရှာဖွေရန် ခုန်ကူးမည်
Guru Nanak (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus

သိခဘာသာ၊ ဘာသာသိခ် (Sikhism) (/ˈsɪkɪzəm/); ပုန်ဇပဳ: ਸਿੱਖੀ or Sikhi (Sikkhī,  [ˈsɪkːʰiː], from ਸਿੱਖ, Sikh, မဂွံအဓိပ္ပါယ် 'ကွးသာဝက၊ ညးလ္ၚတ်) ဂှ် ဒှ်ဘာသာမပတှ်ေကျာ်မွဲဇကု မကၠုင်နူ တမ်မူလ ဒေသပုန်ဇာပ် ပ္ဍဲဒကုတ်တိုက် အိန္ဒိယ[lower-roman ၁] ပ္ဍဲအခိင်ကၞောတ် အေဒဳ ၁၅ ဗွဝ်ကၠံ။[၁][၂][၃][၄][၅] သိခဘာသာဝွံ ပ္ဍဲဘာသာဇမၞော်ဂမၠိုင် ဒှ်ဘာသာတၟိအိုတ်တုဲ ဒှ်ဘာသာဇၞော်အိုတ် ပ္ဍဲဂၠးတိ မရနုက်ကဵုမသုန်၊ ညးလျုင်ပတှ်ေ နွံၜိုတ် ၂၅ ပြကောဋိကိုဋ် ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၂၀၁၉။

သိခဘာသာဂှ် စကတဵုဒှ်ကၠုင် နူကဵု အစာဓရ်ဂုရုနနက်၊ မဒှ် ဂုရုကိုပ်ကၠာအိုတ် (၁၄၆၉-၁၅၃၉)၊ တုဲ ဆက်ကေတ်အာလျိုင်ဒၞာဲညး သီုဖအိုတ် ဂုရု နွံဒစိတ်တၠရ။ ဂုရု မရနုက်ကဵုစှ် ဂုရုဂေါဗိန် သိင်္ဃ (Guru Gobind Singh) (အကြာသၞာံ ၁၆၇၆ - ၁၇၀၈)၊ ဂုရုဂရေန်သဟိဗ် (Guru Granth Sahib) မဒှ် ညးဆက်ဒုင်ကေတ်အာဲညးဂှ် ဒှ်ဂုရုမကြပ်ကဵု ကောန်မၞိဟ်ဂၠိုင်တုဲ ခၞံဗဒှ်ပတိုန် လိက်ဂၠံင်တရဴဓရ်သိခဘာသာရ။[၆] ဂုရုနနက် ဗ္တောန် ဒဒှ်မဂျိုင်တန်တဴ "နကဵုဘဝမၞုံကဵု ကတိုင်ကၟဟ်၊ ခၞံဗဒှ်၊ ကေုာံ ဒ္ဂေတ်လ္ၚတ် ကုဒဒှ်မဍာံစၟတ် မနွံကဵုသစ္စ၊ မနွံကဵု မထိင်ဒဝ် ကေုာံ အးဇ္ၚးဂှ် ဒှ်အရာသမၠုင်အိုတ် လတူဒ္ဂေတ်လၟေတ်တၞဟ်တအ်ရ၊ တုဲပၠန် မဒက်ပ္တန် ပရေင်ပံင်ကောံ ကုကျာ်၊ မတီကေတ် ပၟိက်ဆန္ဒကျာ်တုဲ ဒ္ဂေတ်ဗက် ဂၠံင်တရဴကျာ်ရ။[၇] ဂုရုဟာဂေါဗိန်( Guru Hargobind)၊ မဒှ်ဂုရု မရနုက်ကဵုတြဴ (ပ္ဍဲအကြာသၞာံ ၁၆၀၆ - ၁၆၄၄) ဂှ် ခၞံဗဒှ်ပတိုန် သဘဴဓဝ် အကြာ ဒတန်မိရိ (ပရေင်ဍုင်ကွာန်) ကေုာံ ဒတန်ပိရိ (ဒ္ဂေတ်ဓရ်) တအ်ရ။[၈]

The Sikh scripture opens with the Mul Mantar (ਮੂਲ ਮੰਤਰ), fundamental prayer about ik onkar (ੴ, 'One God').[၉][၁၀] The core beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator; divine unity and equality of all humankind; engaging in seva ('selfless service'); striving for justice for the benefit and prosperity of all; and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life.[၁၁][၁၂][၁၃] Following this standard, Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth.[lower-roman ၂][၁၄]

Sikhism emphasizes simran (ਸਿਮਰਨ, meditation and remembrance of the words of God),[၁၅] which can be expressed musically through kirtan, or internally through <i id="mweA">naam japna</i> ('meditation on His name') as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (i.e. lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego).[၁၆]

The religion developed and evolved in times of religious persecution, gaining converts from both Hinduism and Islam.[၁၇] Mughal rulers of India tortured and executed two of the Sikh gurus—Guru Arjan (1563–1605) and Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621–1675)—after they refused to convert to Islam.[၁၈][၁၉][၂၀][၂၁] The persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa - by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699 - as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion,[၂၂] with members expressing the qualities of a Sant-Sipāhī—a 'saint-soldier'.[၂၃][၂၄]

References[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

  1. "Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated on the Indian subcontinent." Moreno, Luis, and César Colino. Diversity and Unity in Federal Countries 
  2. "Sikhism rejects the view that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly regarding Absolute Truth. Sikhism rejects the practice of converting people to other religious traditions." Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2008). Sikhism. London: Kuperard. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-85733-436-4.
  1. Nesbitt, Eleanor M.. Sikhism: a very short introduction 
  2. Singh, Nirbhai. Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its Manifestations 
  3. Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur. Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs 
  4. Religions: Sikhism (2014).
  5. Cole, William Owen. Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study (Themes in Comparative Religion) 
  6. Mann, Gurinder Singh (2001). The Making of Sikh Scripture. US: Oxford University Press, 21–25, 123–24. ISBN 978-0-19-513024-9 
  7. Marwaha, Sonali Bhatt (2006). Colors of Truth: Religion, Self and Emotions : Perspectives of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Islam, Sikhism and Contemporary Psychology. Concept Publishing Company, 205–206. ISBN 978-81-8069-268-0 
  8. Marty, Martin E. (1996). Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-50884-9 
  9. Pashaura Singh (2003). The Guru Granth Sahib: Canon, Meaning and Authority. Oxford University Press, 101–102. ISBN 978-0-19-908773-0 
  10. Singha, H. S. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt, 20–21, 103. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1 
  11. Kalsi. Sikhism. Chelsea House, 41–50။ 
  12. Cole (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press။ 
  13. Teece (2004). Sikhism:Religion in focus. Black Rabbit Books. ISBN 978-1-58340-469-0 
  14. Reichberg, Gregory M., and Henrik Syse (2014). Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions. Cambridge University Press, 672–74. ISBN 978-1-139-95204-0 
  15. Pattanaik, Devdutt (2019). Where Hinduism and Sikhism meet.
  16. Nayar, Kamala Elizabeth. Socially Involved Renunciate, The: Guru Nanak's Discourse to the Nath Yogis. SUNY Press။ 
  17. (2008) Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy (in English). Routledge. ISBN 9781134049455။ “A large number of Hindu and Muslim peasants converted to Sikhism from conviction, fear, economic motives, or a combination of the three (Khushwant Singh 1999: 106; Ganda Singh 1935: 73).” 
  18. The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8 
  19. "Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan in Early Sikh Sources" . 
  20. "Martyrdom and the Sikh Tradition" . 
  21. "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab" . 
  22. (1 Feb 2008) History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606–1708. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd. ISBN 978-8126908578 
  23. Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals. Shree Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 978-8183291910 
  24. Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-8170174103 
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