Eugene Merle Shoemaker

နူ ဝဳကဳပဳဒဳယာ
အ​ညွှန်း​သို့ ခုန်ကူးရန် ရှာဖွေရန် ခုန်ကူးမည်
Eugene Merle Shoemaker
Eugene Shoemaker at a stereoscopic microscope
သၠးဂၠံဂဝ် (1928-04-28)ဨပြဳ ၂၈၊ ၁၉၂၈
Los Angeles, California
စုတိ ဂျူလာင် ၁၈၊ ၁၉၉၇(1997-07-18) (အာယုက် ၆၉)
Alice Springs, Australia
ဟိုတ်မစုတိ Car crash
ဂကူ American
ဘာ California Institute of Technology
Princeton University
မဒယှ်တဴ Planetary science
Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9
အိန်ထံင် Carolyn S. Shoemaker 1951–1997 (his death)

ဂျေန် ရှဝ်မုက်ကာ (အၚ်္ဂလိက်: Eugene Merle Shoemaker) (ဨပြဳ ၂၈၊ ၁၉၂၈ -ဂျူလာင် ၁၈၊ ၁၉၉၇) လဆောဝ် ပံင်ယၟု နကဵု Gene Shoemakerဝွံ ဒှ်တၠပညာဘူမိဗေဒ ဂကူအမေရိကာန်၊ တုဲ ဒှ်မၞိဟ်မပါလုပ် ပ္ဍဲအရာမခၞံဗဒှ် ဘာသာသိပ္ပံဂြိုဟ်အကာသ (planetary science)ကိုပ်ကၠာအိုတ် မွဲတၠရ။ ညးဝွံ ယၟုမြဟ်တဴ နကဵု ညးမဂွံဆဵုကေတ် သၞံင်ဒဂုဲ (Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9) မစွံ ကုသမ္ဘာညး Carolyn S. Shoemaker ကေုာံ David H. Levy တအ်ရ။ သၞံင်ဒဂုဲဏအ်ဂှ် အာဇီု ဂြိုဟ်ဂျူပိတာ (Jupiter) ပ္ဍဲဂိတုဂျူလာင် သၞာံ ၁၉၉၄ ဗီုမဇီုဂှ် ဗလးထ္ၜး ပ္ဍဲတဳဝဳ အလုံလိုက်မွဲရ။ တုဲပၠန် ရှဝ်မုက်ကာဂှ် သီုဒှ်မၞိဟ် မလ္ၚတ် ဒၞာဲခလံက်ဂၠးတိ ဗီုကဵု Barringer Meteor Crater ပ္ဍဲအရိဇြဝ်နာရ။ ရှဝ်မုက်ကာဂှ် ဒှ်ဒါရာ်တာ ဂကောံသုတေသန မလ္ၚတ်ပထဝဳသၞံင်အကာသ ကၟိန်ဍုင်အမေရိကာန် (the United States Geological Survey's Astrogeology Research Program) ကၠာအိုတ်ရ။ တုဲပၠန် အရာညးဂမၠိုင် မတီ ဂျေန် မွဲပၠန်ဂှ် ညးဂွံ မဂွံအခေါင်တိုပ်ဇုတ်ညးတေအ် လတူဂိတုကၠာအိုတ်ရ။

ပထမအဝဲ ကေုာံ ပရေင်ပညာဘာ[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

ရှဝ်မုက်ကာ ကတဵုဒှ်မၞိဟ် ပ္ဍဲလောသ် အေန်ဂျလေသ် (Los Angeles) ကာလဳဝှောရ်နဳယျာ (California) ပ္ဍဲကၟိန်ဍုင်အမေရိကာန်၊ မဒှ်ကောန် အစာဘာ မူရေလ် မေ (Muriel May) ကေုာံ George Estel Shoemaker မဒှ် သၟာဗ္ၚ၊ သၟာပရေင်ပိုန်ဒြပ်၊ အစာဘာ ကေုာံ ရုပ်ဒမျိုင် (motion pictures)ရ။[၁][၂] မိမညးတေအ်ဂှ် ဒှ်မၞိဟ် ဇာတိ နူကဵု Nebraska။ ပ္ဍဲအခိင် ကာလညးဍောတ်တ်ဂှ် မိမညးတအ် ပြံင်လုပ်မံင် အကြာလောသ် အေန်ဂျလေသ် ကဵု နျူယံက်၊ ဗာပ်ဖလဝ် ကေုာံ Wyomingတုဲ အပါညး George ဂှ် လုပ်ကၠောန်ကမၠောန် နာနာသာ်ရ။ အပါညးတေအ်ဂှ် ဟွံမိက်မံင် ပ္ဍဲဍုင်ဇၞော်ဇၞော်တုဲ ဒးဂၞပ် ကမၠောန် နကဵုကဆံင် ဒါရာ်တာ ပ္ဍဲကဵု ဘာ Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) ပ္ဍဲဍုင် Wyoming မဒှ်ကွာန်ဍောတ်တ်မွဲရ။ ဆဂး မိညးတေအ်ဂှ် ညာတ်ကေတ် ယဝ်ရကောန်ဇကု ပ္ဍဲကွာန်ရးမ္ဂး ပရေင်ဇၞော်မောဝ် ဍိုဟ်ကေက် ဍိုန်လျတုဲ မိက်ဂွံမံင် လတူဍုင်ဇၞော်ရ။ ကာလ မိညးတေအ် ကလိဂွံ ကမၠောန်အစာဘာ ပ္ဍဲ ဍုင်ဗာပ်ဖလဝ် ဘာကဝ်လိက်အလဵုအသဳ (State Teachers College at Buffalo)[၃][၄][၅][၆][၇] အခိင်ဘာပံက်မ္ဂး ညးတေအ် မံင်ကရောမ်မိညးတေအ် ပ္ဍဲဗာပ်ဖလဝ်တုဲ အခိင်ကညင် ဘာကၟာတ်မ္ဂး ညးတအ် ပြံင်မံင် ပ္ဍဲဒၞာဲအပါညးတေအ် ကွာန် Wyoming ရ။ ဂျေန် စိုတ်ထတ် သွက်ဂွံလ္ၚတ် ပရူတၟအ်ဂမၠိုင်ရ။ တုဲ ညးတေအ် ဂွံအခေါင်လ္ၚတ် ပ္ဍဲကဵု တိုက်ထ္ၜးပျးဗာပ်ဖလဝ် ပ္ဍဲဒၞာဲခန်ထ္ၜးသိပ္ပံရ။[lower-alpha     ၁] ညးတေအ် တိုန်ဘာတန်စတုတ္ထ ပ္ဍဲကဵု ဘာ the School of Practice တုဲ စနူအခိင်ဂှ် ညးတေအ် စပကောံ တၟအ်ဂကူနာနာ ဓါတ်မိနေရလ်နာနာရ။ ကြဴနူဂှ် မွဲသၞာံဂှ် ညးတေအ် သီုတိုန်ဘာ ကဆံင်တန်သမၠုင် ပ္ဍဲအခိင်သဝ်တ္ၚဲကီုရ။ ဂကောံသ္ၚိကၟိန်ညးတေအ် ပြံင်အာမံင် လောသ် အေန်ဂျလေသ် ပၠန် ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၁၉၄၂ ဂှ်တုဲ ဂျေန်လုပ်တိုန်ဘာတန်သမၠုင် ပ္ဍဲ Fairfax High School။ ကာလဂှ် ညးတေအ် ကလိဂွံအာယုက် ၁၃ သၞာံရ။ ကြဴနူဂှ် ပိသၞာံ ညးတေအ် ဘာတန်သမၠုင် အာစိုပ်ဒတုဲရ။ ပ္ဍဲအခိင် ညးတေအ် မတိုန်ဒၟံင် ဘာတန်သမၠုင်ဂှ် ညးတေအ် သီုဓဇက် ဂြဝ် ပ္ဍဲဂကောံဂဳတဘာ (the school orchestra)ကီုရ။ တုဲပၠန် ပ္ဍဲပရေင်ကာယဗလလေဝ် စိုန်သကီု စိစောန်ကီုရ။ ပ္ဍဲအခိင်ဘာကၟာတ်မ္ဂး ညးတေအ် လုပ်ကၠောန်ကမၠောန် ပ္ဍဲဒၞာဲချူမတ် (lapidary)[၈]

ဂျေန် လုပ်တိုန်ဘာ ပ္ဍဲ California Institute of Technology ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၁၉၄၄ ကာလညးတေအ် မကလိဂွံအာယုက် ၁၆ သၞာံဂှ်ရ။[lower-alpha     ၂] သကအ်ရဲ ပ္ဍဲဘာညးတေအ်ဂှ် အာယုက်ဇၞော် နူညးတေအ်အိုတ်တုဲ ကၠာဟွံစိုပ် ပၞာန်ဂၠးတိအလန်ဒုတိယဂှ် ညးတေအ် ဘာတိုန်ရ။ ဂျေန် ကလိဂွံ ဗြးမဟိမု ဗာတ်ချ်လာ ဒဳဂရဳ ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၁၉၄၈ ကာလညးတေအ် မကလိဂွံ အာယုက် ၁၉ သၞာံရ။ တုဲဂှ် ညးတေအ် ကေတ် သွက်ဂွံလ္ၚတ်တၟအ် Precambrian metamorphic rocks မနွံ ပ္ဍဲ နျူ မက္ကဇြဳကဝ် လပါ်သၟဝ်ကျာတုဲ ကလိဂွံ ဗြးမဟိမုမဟာ (M. Sc. degree) နူကဵု Caltech ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၁၉၄၉ ရ။[၈]

သ္ၚိကၟိန်[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

အခိင်ကာလ ဂျေန် မတိုန်ဒၟံင် ပ္ဍဲ Caltech ဂှ် သကအ်ရဲညးတေအ် မွဲဂှ် ဒှ် Richard Spellman မဒှ်ညး မကၠုင်နူ ချဳကဝ်၊ ကာလဳဝှောရ်နဳယျာ။ ကာလညးတေအ် မလုပ်ကၠောန်ဒၟံင် အစဳအဇန်ဒံက်တာ ပ္ဍဲကဵုတက္ကသိုလ် Princeton University ဂှ် ညးတေအ် ကလေင်အာ ကာလဳဝှောရ်နဳယျာ သွက်ဂွံ တိုန်သဘင်ပမ္ၚဵုထပ်တဲ Richard ပ္ဍဲကဵု သၞာံ ၁၉၅၀ ဂှ်ရ။ ကာလဂှ် ညးတေအ် ဂွံဆဵု ကဵုဒေအ် Richard မနွံယၟု ကာရဝ်လေန် (Carolyn) ရ။ ကာရဝ်လေန်ဂှ် ကတဵုဒှ်မၞိဟ် ပ္ဍဲကွာန် Gallup၊ နျူမက္ကဇြဳကဝ် ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၁၉၂၉၊ ဆဂး ခြာဟွံလအ်ဂှ် ဂကောံသ္ၚိကၟိန်ညးတအ် ပြံင်လုပ်မံင် ပ္ဍဲချဳကဝ် (Chico) တုဲ ညးတအ် ဆက်မံင်အာ စဵုကဵု အခိင်ဂှ်ရ။ ကာရဝ်လေန်ဂှ် ကလိဂွံ ဗြမဟိမုဒဳဂရဳ နူကဵု ကဝ်လိက်ချဳကဝ် (Chico State College) ဘာသာဝင် ကေုာံ ပရေင်သိပ္ပံပရေင်ဍုင်ကွာန်ရ။ ညးတေအ် မွဲလှ်ေကီု စိုတ်ဟွံလုပ်စ လပါ်ကွတ်သိပ္ပံရ။ ဆဂး စုက်လုက် ကုဂျေန်တုဲ ညးတေအ် စိုတ်လုပ်စတုဲ တိုန်တန်ဗတောန် မဆေင်ကဵု ပထဝဳ ပ္ဍဲကဝ်လိက်ရ။ ဆဂး ညးတေအ်ထေင် ဒှ်အရာ စိုတ်မလုပ်စခိုဟ် မွဲဟွံသေင်ရ။ ညးၜါဂှ် ဖျေဟ်ဒၞာဲဒက်အိန်ထံင် ပ္ဍဲကဵု ၁၇ အဝ်ဂေတ် သၞာံ ၁၉၅၁ ရ။[၉]

ညးတအ် ကလိဂွံ ကောန်ဇာတ်ပိ၊ ကောန်ဗြဴၜါ ကဵု ကောန်တြုဟ်မွဲ။ ကာရဝ်လေန်ဂှ် ဒှ်အာမၞိဟ်မမင်မွဲသ္ၚိ ကေုာံ ရံင်စကောန်ၚာ် ပ္ဍဲသ္ၚိရ။ ကၠာညးတအ် ဟွံစှ်ေဒၞာဲဂှ် ၜိုန်ရ ညးတေအ် ကလိဂွံကမၠောန် အစာဘာကီုလေဝ် ဟွံပြေပြံင်တုဲ တိတ်ထောအ်ရ။ ကာလကောန်ၚာ်တအ် ဇၞော်ဂေါဝ်အိုတ်တုဲ ကာရဝ်လေန် ကမၠောန် သွက်ကၠောန် ဟွံမဲ လ္ၚုတုဲ ဂျေန် ကဵုကသပ် ကဵုတိုန်ဘာ စပ်ကဵု နက္ခတ္တဗေဒ တုဲ လုပ်ကၠောန် ပ္ဍဲဂကောံညးတအ် သွက်ဂွံမင်ရံင် အကာသရ။ ကာလ ညးတေအ် ကလိဂွံအာယုက် ၅၁ ဂှ် ဂွံဒှ် သၟာနက္ခတ္တဗေဒ (a planetary astronomer) မွဲတုဲ ဆက်ကၠောန်အာကမၠောန်ဂှ်ရ။[၉]

ပရေင်ရေင်တၠုင် မဆေင် ကုသိပ္ပံ[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Eugene Shoemaker wearing a Bell Rocket Belt while training astronauts.

ဂကောံသုတေသနပထဝဳ ကၟိန်ဍုင်အမေရိကာန် (United States Geological Survey) (USGS) ခပတိုန်ကမၠောန် ကုဂျေန် နူသၞာံ ၁၉၅၀။[lower-alpha     ၃] တာလျိုင်ညးတေအ် ကၠာအိုတ်ဂှ် သွက်ဂွံဂၠာဲ ဓါတ်ယူရေနဳယာမ် (uranium deposits) ပ္ဍဲဥထာ (Utah) ကဵု ကဝ်လဝ်ရာဒဝ် (Colorado)ရ။ ပရေင်ကမၠောန်ညးတေအ် ဂတဂှ် သွက်ဂွံလ္ၚတ် လၟေင်ဒဒှ်ဒဵုခတိုဟ် (volcanic processes) မုဟိုတ်ရောမ္ဂး ညးမလ္ၚတ်လဝ် ကိုပ်ကၠာတေအ် ဟီုလဝ် ကတိုင်ဓါတ်ယူရေနဳယာမ်ဂှ် ဗွဲမဂၠိုင် ဂွံဆဵုကေတ် ဒၞာဲဒဵုခတိုဟ် တြေံရ။ ပရေင်လ္ၚတ်ဏအ်ဂှ် ဗလးကဵုညးတေအ် ဂၠာဲလ္ၚတ် ပ္ဍဲ Hopi Buttes မနွံလပါ်သၟဝ်ကျာ အရိဇြဝ်နာ (Northern Arizona) ဗဒါဲ (Meteor Crater)ရ။[၈]

Daniel Barringer, an entrepreneur and mining engineer who had discovered Meteor Crater in 1891, had postulated that it had been caused by the impact of a meteor. About the same time, G. K. Gilbert, the chief geologist of the USGS, examined the crater and announced that it had been created by an explosive venting of volcanic steam. A majority of scientists accepted Gilbert's explanation of the cause of the crater, This theory remained as conventional wisdom until Shoemaker's investigations a half century later.[၈]


Astrogeology and Apollo[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Shoemaker training astronauts at Brooks Camp, Katmai National Park[၁၀]

For his Ph.D. degree at Princeton (1960), under the guidance of Harry Hammond Hess, Shoemaker studied the impact dynamics of Barringer Meteor Crater.  Shoemaker noted Meteor Crater had the same form and structure as two explosion craters created from atomic bomb tests at the Nevada Test Site, notably Jangle U in 1951 and Teapot Ess in 1955. In 1960, Edward C. T. Chao and Shoemaker identified shocked quartz (coesite) at Meteor Crater, proving the crater was formed from an impact generating extremely high temperatures and pressures.  They followed this discovery with the identification of coesite within suevite at Nördlinger Ries, proving its impact origin.[၁၁]

In 1960, Shoemaker directed a team at the USGS center in Menlo Park, California, to generate the first geologic map of the Moon using photographs taken by Francis G. Pease.  Shoemaker also helped pioneer the field of astrogeology by founding the Astrogeology Research Program. He was prominently involved in the Lunar Ranger missions to the Moon, joining the television imaging team of Harold Urey and Gerard Kuiper, which turned into a preparatory mission for the future manned landing.  Shoemaker was then chosen to be the principal investigator for the Surveyor program's television experiment, and then the lunar geology principal investigator for Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 13.[၁၁]:85-86,92-97,101,119,136

Shoemaker was also involved in the training of the American astronauts.  He himself was a possible candidate for an Apollo Moon flight and was set to be the first geologist to walk on the Moon but was disqualified due to being diagnosed with Addison's disease, a disorder of the adrenal gland.  Shoemaker would train astronauts during field trips to Meteor Crater and Sunset Crater near Flagstaff.[၁၂] He was a CBS News television commentator on the early Apollo missions, especially the Apollo 8 and Apollo 11 missions, appearing with Walter Cronkite during live coverage of those flights.[၁၃]


According to David H. Levy, just before the manned Moon landings,

"With humanity about to set forth upon this new world, geologists and astronomers were divided as to whether the lunar surface was a result of volcanic forces from beneath, or cosmic forces from above.  In 1949, Ralph Baldwin had articulated that the Moon's craters were mostly of impact origin and Gene Shoemaker revived the idea again around 1960.  He saw craters on the Moon as logical impact sites that were formed not gradually, in eons, but explosively, in seconds."[၁၁]:58-59


He was awarded the John Price Wetherill Medal from the Franklin Institute in 1965.


Coming to Caltech in 1969, he started a systematic search for Earth orbit-crossing asteroids, which resulted in the discovery of several families of such asteroids, including the Apollo asteroids. Shoemaker advanced the idea that sudden geologic changes can arise from asteroid strikes and that asteroid strikes are common over geologic time periods.  Previously, astroblemes were thought to be remnants of extinct volcanoes  — even on the Moon.

Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

In 1993, he co-discovered Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 using the 18-inch Schmidt camera at Palomar Observatory.  This comet was unique in that it provided the first opportunity to observe the planetary impact of a comet.  Shoemaker–Levy 9 collided with Jupiter in July 1994. The resulting impact caused a massive "scar" on the face of Jupiter.

Death[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Shoemaker spent much of his later years searching for and finding several previously unnoticed or undiscovered impact craters around the world.

Shoemaker died on July 18, 1997 during one such expedition in a head-on car collision on the remote Tanami Track, a few hundred kilometers northwest of Alice Springs, Australia. Shoemaker's wife Carolyn was severely injured in the crash.[၁၄][၁၅][၁၆][၁၇][၁၈][၁၉][၂၀][၄]


On July 31, 1999, some of his ashes were carried to the Moon by the Lunar Prospector space probe in a capsule designed by Carolyn Porco.[၂၁][၂၂] He is the only person whose ashes have been buried on any celestial body outside Earth.[၂၃]

The brass foil wrapping of Shoemaker's memorial capsule is inscribed with images of Comet Hale–Bopp ("the last comet that the Shoemakers observed together"),[၂၂] the Barringer Meteor Crater, and a quotation from Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet reading


And, when he shall die

Take him and cut him out in little stars

And he will make the face of heaven so fine

That all the world will be in love with night

And pay no worship to the garish sun.[၂၁][၂၄]

The fatal crash had happened when Hale-Bopp was still visible to the naked eye, having passed perihelion and having moved into the southern celestial hemisphere.

Awards and tributes[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Gene Shoemaker received a large number of awards for his professional work. According to the obituary published by the USGS Astrogeology Science Center, these included:[၂၅]

  • Doctorate of Science, Arizona State College, Flagstaff, 1965.
  • Wetherill Medal of the Franklin Institute, co-recipient with E.C.T. Chao, 1965.
  • Arthur S. Flemming Award, 1966. Doctorate of Science, Temple University, 1967.
  • NASA Medal for Scientific Achievement, 1967.
  • U.S. Department of the Interior Honor Award for Meritorious Service, 1973.
  • Member, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 1980.
  • U.S. Department of the Interior Distinguished Service Award, 1980.
  • Arthur L. Day Medal of the Geological Society of America, 1982.
  • G.K. Gilbert Award of the Geological Society of America, 1983.
  • Honorary Doctorate of Science, University of Arizona, 1984.
  • Barringer Award of the Meteoritical Society, 1984.
  • Kuiper Prize of the American Astronomical Society, Division for Planetary Sciences, 1984.
  • Leonard Medal of the Meteoritical Society, 1985.
  • Distinguished Alumni Award of the California Institute of Technology, 1986.
  • Rittenhouse Medal of the Rittenhouse Astronomical Society, co-recipient with C.S. Shoemaker, 1988.
  • U.S. National Medal of Science, 1992.
  • Whipple Award, American Geophysical Union, 1993.
  • Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1993.
  • AIAA Space Science Award, 1996.
  • Bowie Medal, American Geophysical Union, 1996.
  • Special Award, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1997.
  • Shoemaker Award, Texas Section of the American Institute of Professional Geologists, awarded posthumously, 1997.


On July 24, 1997, a memorial for Dr. Eugene Shoemaker and Dr. Jurgen Rahe was presented in the U.S. House of Representatives by California representative George E. Brown, Jr. The memorial was published in the Congressional Record. The memorial credited Shoemaker with being either the discoverer or co-discoverer of 820 asteroids and comets during his career.[lower-alpha     ၄] [၂၆]


A ring-like topographic feature in Western Australia, an astrobleme previously named the "Teague ring" was renamed "Shoemaker Crater" in honor of Eugene M. Shoemaker.


The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous space probe was renamed "NEAR Shoemaker" in his honor. It arrived at asteroid 433 Eros in February 2000, and landed on the asteroid after a year of orbital study. He was previously honored with the asteroid 2074 Shoemaker, discovered and named by his colleague, Eleanor F. Helin.[၂၇]

List of discovered minor planets[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

ထာမ်ပလိက်:See also cat


Gene Shoemaker is credited by the Minor Planet Center with the co-discovery of 183 minor planets between 1977 and 1994.[၂၈]



Notes[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

  1. Buffalo Museum of Education likely refers to the institution now known as the Buffalo Museum of Science.
  2. Astronomer and co-discoverer of the Shoemaker-Levy comet, David H. Levy, reportedly, said that Shoemaker had never considered going to any other university than Caltech.[၈]
  3. Gene would maintain some association with the USGS for the rest of his active life.[၈]
  4. Dr. Rahe was a German-American astronomer and project leader at NASA who was killed in an auto accident near Washington D. C. on June 18, 1997.

References[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

  1. Eugene M. Shoemaker Biography။ 31 March 2018 တင်နိဿဲဏအ် ကလေင်စၟဳစၟတ်တုဲ 
  2. - American Institute of Physics. Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  3. Levy, David H. (24 November 2002). Shoemaker by Levy - The Man Who Made an Impact. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691113254။ 31 March 2018 တင်နိဿဲဏအ် ကလေင်စၟဳစၟတ်တုဲ 
  4. ၄.၀ ၄.၁ Kieffer, Susan (2015). Biographical memoir (PDF).
  5. 2011 March – Ahern Funeral Home Condolences. Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  6. History - SUNY Buffalo State. Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  7. Eliza Kellas
  8. ၈.၀ ၈.၁ ၈.၂ ၈.၃ ၈.၄ ၈.၅ Kieffer, Susan. W. "Eugene M. Shoemaker (1928 - 1997)." Biographical Memoirs. National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Accessed April 22, 2017.
  9. ၉.၀ ၉.၁ Chapman, Mary G. "Carolyn Shoemaker." USGS Astrogeology Center. May 17, 2002. Accessed April 24, 2017.
  10. (2015) Science Training History of the Apollo Astronauts. NASA SP -2015-626, 65။ 
  11. ၁၁.၀ ၁၁.၁ ၁၁.၂ (2002) Shoemaker by Levy: The man who made an impact. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 69,74-75,78-79,81-85,99-100. ISBN 9780691113258 
  12. About - USGS Astrogeology Science Center. Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  13. "{{{title}}}" (May 1998).  ထာမ်ပလိက်:Subscription required
  14. Malcolm W. Browne, Dr. Eugene Shoemaker, 69; Set Record for Finding Comets, New York Times (July 19, 1997).
  15. BQR - winter 1999-2000 - Gene Shoemaker. Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  16. Dandj (26 December 2010). Travels with an Oka: In the Wheel Ruts of Len Beadell. Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  17. Astronomer Eugene Shoemaker dies in car crash (19 July 1997). Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  18. "Gene Shoemaker" (July 31, 1997). The Economist. Retrieved on 31 March 2018. 
  19. Eugene Shoemaker (1928-1997). Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  20. Eugene Shoemaker (1928 - 1997) - American Astronomical Society. Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  21. ၂၁.၀ ၂၁.၁ Porco, Carolyn. The Eugene M. Shoemaker Tribute. Diamond Sky Productions. Retrieved on 8 June 2013
  22. ၂၂.၀ ၂၂.၁ Porco၊ Carolyn C.။ "Destination Moon"၊ February 2000။ 8 June 2013 တင်နိဿဲဏအ် စၟဳစၟတ်တုဲ 
  23. Fly Me to the Moon ... Forever. Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  24. Eugene Shoemaker Ashes Carried on Lunar Prospector. Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  25. Chapman, Mary G. "Gene Shoemaker - Founder of Astrogeology." USGS Astrogeology Science Center. Accessed April 21, 2017
  26. "In Remembrance of Dr. Eugene Shoemaker and Dr. Jurgen Rahe." Congressional Record Volume 143, Number 106 (Thursday, July 24, 1997). Accessed April 23, 2017
  27. Chamberlin, Alan. JPL Small-Body Database Browser. Retrieved on 31 March 2018
  28. {{Cite web   |title      = Minor Planet Discoverers (by number)   |work       = Minor Planet Center   |url        = https://www.minorplanetcenter.net/iau/lists/MPDiscsNum.html   |date       = 25 October 2018   |accessdate = 18 February 2019}}

Bibliography[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Kring, D.A., (2007) "Guidebook to the Geology of Barringer Meteorite Crater, Arizona (a.k.a. Meteor Crater)". Lunar and Planetary Institute contribution No. 1355
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  • Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.


External links[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

ကလေင်သီကေတ်လဝ် နူ "https://mnw.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugene_Merle_Shoemaker&oldid=24000"