လိင် မသက်ကုဘဲ

နူ ဝဳကဳပဳဒဳယာ
အ​ညွှန်း​သို့ ခုန်ကူးရန် ရှာဖွေရန် ခုန်ကူးမည်
ကောန်ဒေါမ် (condoms) မဒှ် ဂရောပ် အင်္ဂလိင် မၞိဟ်တြုတ် (ဟွံသေင်မ္ဂး) လပုဟ်တဲ (ဟွံသေင်မ္ဂး အဝဲလစှ်ေကာယတၞဟ်သွက်ကလိဂွံ လိင် မသက်ကုဘဲ အခိင်ကာလ မပၠုပ်စုတ် အပ္ဍဲပထောင် ကာယ။
Dental dams ယာတ်ဂရောပ် သွက်ဂွံကၟာတ် အင်္ဂလိင်မၞိဟ်ဗြဴ ဟွံသေင်မ္ဂး သင်အိက် အခိင်ကာလ မဇွိတ်သပေါတ် နကဵု မကၠာန်ယောနိ (cunnilingus) ဟွံသေင်မ္ဂး မကၠာန်ဝစ္စ (anilingus) သွက်ကလိဂွံ လိင် မသက်ကုဘဲ။
ကောန်ဒေါမ်ညးဗြဴ (Female condoms) ("internal" condoms ကောန်ဒေါမ်ပဍဲ) စကာဂွံ ကာလမဒုင်ပွံင် သွက် လိင် မသက်ကုဘဲ

လိင် မသက်ကုဘဲ (Safe sex) ဂှ် ပရေင်ချဳဓရာင် လိင်ကာမ နမစကာ နဲကဲ ဟွံသေင်မ္ဂး ကပေါတ် (မပတံကဵု ကောန်ဒေါမ်) သွက်ဂွံ ဖအောန်ဖျေဟ် ကမၠောအ်ယဲ ဟွံသေင်မ္ဂး ဝေင်ပါဲ ယဲကၞောန် နကဵုလိင်(sexually transmitted infections (STIs)၊ ဗွဲတၟေင် ယဲအုက်အာင်ဝဳ (HIV)ရ။ လိင်မသက်ကုဘဲ ဂှ်လဆောဝ် ကၠာဲအတိုင် မအရေဝ်အင်္ဂလိက် "Safe sex" လိင်ဂီုကၠီု ဟွံသေင်မ္ဂး protected sex လိင်မနွံကဵုစဵုဒၞာ လေဝ် ဟီုကီုရ။ ညံင်နဲ မစဵုဒၞာ ညံင်ဟွံဂွံကၠောအ်ယဲဂှ်ကီု လဆောဝ်မ္ဂး ညံင်ဟွံဂွံတန် ပဋိသန္ဓိ (ညံင်ဟွံဂွံဗုင်) လေဝ် စကာနဲကဲဏအ်တုဲ ဒုင်စသိုင် အရီုကာမလိင်ကီုရ။

ဂလာန်မ္ဂး လိင်မသက်ကုဘဲဂှ် ပ္ဍဲအခိင် ၁၉၈၀တအ် တၞဟ်နဂွံဝေင်ပါဲ ညံင်ယဲအေအာင်ဒဳအေသ် ဟွံဂွံကၠောအ်တုဲ စဖန် ဟီုဂးကၠုင်ရ။[၁][၂]

ဆဂး လိင်မသက်ကုဘဲ (ညံင်ရဴ ကောန်ဒေါမ်) ဂှ် တၞဟ်နဂွံဝေင်ပါဲ ညံင်ဟွံဂွံကောန်ဇာတ်တုဲ စကာဒၟံင်ကီုရ။

နတဲ[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

A range of safe-sex practices are commonly recommended by sexual health educators and public health agencies. Many of these practices can reduce (but not completely eliminate) risk of transmitting or acquiring STIs.

လိင် ဖုန်/လိင်သာဲပါ/လိင်Phone sex/cybersex/sexting[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Sexual activities, such as phone sex, cybersex, and sexting, that do not include direct contact with the skin or bodily fluids of sexual partners, carry no STI risks and, thus, are forms of safe sex.[၃]

Non-penetrative sex[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

A range of sex acts called "non-penetrative sex" or "outercourse" can significantly reduce STI risks. Non-penetrative sex includes practices such as kissing, mutual masturbation, rubbing or stroking.[၄][၅] According to the Health Department of Western Australia, this sexual practice may prevent pregnancy and most STIs. However, non-penetrative sex may not protect against infections that can be transmitted via skin-to-skin contact, such as herpes and human papilloma virus.[၆] Mutual or partnered masturbation carries some STI risk, especially if there is skin contact or shared bodily fluids with sexual partners, although the risks are significantly lower than many other sexual activities.[၃]

Condoms, dental dams, gloves[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Barriers, such as condoms, dental dams, and medical gloves can prevent contact with body fluids (such as blood, vaginal fluid, semen, rectal mucus), and other means of transmitting STIs (like skin, hair and shared objects) during sexual activity.

How to put a male condom on a penis
  • External condoms can be used to cover the penis, hands, fingers, or other body parts during sexual penetration or stimulation. They are most frequently made of latex, and can also be made out of synthetic materials including polyurethane and polyisoprene.
  • Internal condoms (also called female condoms) are inserted into the vagina or anus prior to sexual penetration. These condoms are made of either polyurethane or nitrile. If external and internal condoms are used at the same time, they may break due to friction between the materials during sexual activity.
  • A dental dam (originally used in dentistry) is a sheet of latex used for protection when engaging in oral sex. It is typically used as a barrier between the mouth and the vulva during cunnilingus or between the mouth and the anus during anal–oral sex.
  • Medical gloves made out of latex, vinyl, nitrile, or polyurethane may be used as a makeshift dental dam during oral sex, or can cover hands, fingers, or other body parts during penetration or sexual stimulation, such as masturbation.[၇][၈]
  • Condoms, dental dams, and gloves can also be used to cover sex toys such as dildos during sexual stimulation or penetration. If a sex toy is to be used in more than one orifice or partner, a condom/dental dam/glove can be used over it and changed when the toy is moved.

Oil-based lubrication can break down the structure of latex condoms, dental dams or gloves, reducing their effectiveness for STI protection.[၉]

While use of external condoms can reduce STI risks during sexual activity, they are not 100% effective. One study has suggested condoms might reduce HIV transmission by 85% to 95%; effectiveness beyond 95% was deemed unlikely because of slippage, breakage, and incorrect use.[၁၀] It also said, "In practice, inconsistent use may reduce the overall effectiveness of condoms to as low as 60–70%".p. 40.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (often abbreviated as PrEP) is the use of prescription drugs by those who do not have HIV to prevent HIV infection. PrEP drugs are taken prior to HIV exposure to prevent the transmission of the virus, usually between sexual partners. PrEP drugs do not prevent other STI infections or pregnancy.

As of 2018, the most-widely approved form of PrEP combines two drugs (tenofovir and emtricitabine) in one pill. That drug combination is sold under the brand name Truvada by Gilead Sciences. It is also sold in generic formulations worldwide. Other drugs are also being studied for use as PrEP.

Different countries have approved different protocols for using the tenofovir/emtricitabine-combination drug as PrEP. That two-drug combination has been shown to prevent HIV infection in different populations when taken daily, intermittently, and on demand. Numerous studies have found the tenofovir/emtricitabine combination to be over 90% effective at preventing HIV transmission between sexual partners.[၁၁]

Treatment as prevention[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Treatment as Prevention (often abbreviated as TasP) is the practice of testing for and treating HIV infection as a way to prevent further spread of the virus. Those having knowledge of their HIV-positive status can use safe-sex practices to protect themselves and their partners (such as using condoms, sero-sorting partners, or choosing less-risky sexual activities). And, because HIV-positive people with durably suppressed or undetectable amounts of HIV in their blood cannot transmit HIV to sexual partners, sexual activity with HIV-positive partners on effective treatment is a form of safe sex (to prevent HIV infection). This fact has given rise to the concept of "U=U" ("Undetectable = Untransmittable").[၁၂]

Other forms of safe sex[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Other methods proven effective at reducing STI risks during sexual activity are:

  • Immunization against certain sexually-transmitted viruses. The most common vaccines protect against Hepatitis B and Human papilloma virus (HPV), which can cause cervical cancer, penile cancer, oral cancer, and genital warts. Immunization before initiation of sexual activity increases effectiveness of these vaccines. HPV vaccines are recommended for all teen girls and women as well as teen boys and men through age 26 and 21 respectively.[၁၃]
  • Limiting numbers of sexual partners, particularly casual sexual partners, or restricting sexual activity to those who know and share their STI status, can also reduce STI risks. Monogamy or polyfidelity, practiced faithfully, is very safe (as far as STIs are concerned) when all partners are non-infected. However, many monogamous people have been infected with sexually transmitted diseases by partners who are sexually unfaithful, have used injection drugs, or were infected by previous sexual partners. The same risks apply to polyfidelitous people, who face higher risks depending on how many people are in the polyfidelitous group.
  • Communication with sexual partners about sexual history and STI status, preferred safe sex practices, and acceptable risks for partnered sexual activities.
  • Engaging in less-risky sexual activities. In general, solo sexual activities are less risky than partnered activities. Sexual penetration of orifices (mouth, vagina, anus) and sharing body fluids (such as semen, blood, vaginal fluids, and rectal mucus) between sexual partners carry the most risk for STIs.
  • Regular STI testing and treatment, especially by those who are sexually active with more than one casual sexual partner.[၁၄][၁၅] It is possible to attain and show proof of STD-free-verification through online dating apps and websites. Examples include apps/websites such as MedXSafe, Safeapp.me, Qpid.me, Healthvana, NeatClub, ...
  • Penile circumcision. Some research suggests that circumcising (removing) the foreskin of the penis can reduce the risk of contracting HIV.[၁၆] Some advocacy groups dispute these findings.[၁၇][၁၈]

Ineffective methods[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

General[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Most methods of contraception are not effective at preventing the spread of STIs. This includes birth control pills, vasectomy, tubal ligation, periodic abstinence, IUDs and many non-barrier methods of pregnancy prevention. However, condoms are highly effective for birth control and STI prevention.

The spermicide Nonoxynol-9 has been claimed to reduce the likelihood of STI transmission. However, a technical report[၁၉] by the World Health Organization has shown that Nonoxynol-9 is an irritant and can produce tiny tears in mucous membranes, which may increase the risk of transmission by offering pathogens more easy points of entry into the system. They reported that Nonoxynol-9 lubricant do not have enough spermicide to increase contraceptive effectiveness cautioned they should not be promoted. There is no evidence that spermicidal condoms are better at preventing STD transmission compared to condoms that do not have spermicide. If used properly, spermicidal condoms can prevent pregnancy, but there is still an increased risk that nonoxynyl-9 can irritate the skin, making it more susceptible for infections.[၂၀]

The use of a diaphragm or contraceptive sponge provides some women with better protection against certain sexually transmitted diseases,[၂၁] but they are not effective for all STIs.

Hormonal methods of preventing pregnancy (such as oral contraceptives [i.e. 'The pill'], depoprogesterone, hormonal IUDs, the vaginal ring, and the patch) offer no protection against STIs. The copper intrauterine device and the hormonal intrauterine device provide an up to 99% protection against pregnancies but no protection against STIs. Women with copper intrauterine device may be subject to greater risk of infection from bacterial infectious such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, although this is debated.[၂၂]

Coitus interruptus (or "pulling out"), in which the penis is removed from the vagina, anus, or mouth before ejaculation, may reduce transmission of STIs but still carries significant risk. This is because pre-ejaculate, a fluid that oozes from the penile urethra before ejaculation, may contain STI pathogens. Additionally, the microbes responsible for some diseases, including genital warts and syphilis, can be transmitted through skin-to-skin or mucous membrane contact.

Anal sex[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Unprotected anal penetration is considered a high-risk sexual activity because the thin tissues of the anus and rectum can be easily damaged.[၂၃] Slight injuries can allow the passage of bacteria and viruses, including HIV. This includes penetration of the anus by fingers, hands, or sex toys such as dildos. Also, condoms may be more likely to break during anal sex than during vaginal sex, increasing the risk of STI transmission.[၂၄]

The main risk which individuals are exposed to when performing anal sex is the transmission of HIV. Other possible infections include Hepatitis A, B and C; intestinal parasite infections like Giardia; and bacterial infections such as Escherichia coli.[၂၅]

Anal sex should be avoided by couples in which one of the partners has been diagnosed with an STI until the treatment has proven to be effective.

In order to make anal sex safer, the couple must ensure that the anal area is clean and the bowel empty and the partner on whom anal penetration occurs should be able to relax. Regardless of whether anal penetration occurs by using a finger or the penis, the condom is the best barrier method to prevent transmission of STI. Enemas should be not be used as they can increase the risk of HIV infection[၂၆] and lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis.[၂၇]

Since the rectum can be easily damaged, the use of lubricants is highly recommended even when penetration occurs by using the finger. Especially for beginners, using a condom on the finger is both a protection measure against STI and a lubricant source. Most condoms are lubricated and they allow less painful and easier penetration. Oil-based lubricants damage latex and should not be used with condoms;[၂၈] water-based and silicone-based lubricants are available instead. Non-latex condoms are available for people who are allergic to latex made out of polyurethane or polyisoprene.[၂၉] Polyurethane condoms can safely be used with oil-based lubricant.[၃၀] The "female condom" may also be used effectively by the anal receiving partner.

Anal stimulation with a sex toy requires similar safety measures to anal penetration with a penis, in this case using a condom on the sex toy in a similar way.

It is important that the man washes and cleans his penis after anal intercourse if he intends to penetrate the vagina. Bacteria from the rectum are easily transferred to the vagina, which may cause vaginal and urinary tract infections.[၃၁]

When anal-oral contact occurs, protection is required since this is a risky sexual behavior in which illnesses as Hepatitis A or STIs can be easily transmitted, as well as enteric infections. The dental dam or the plastic wrap[၃၂] are effective protection means whenever anilingus is performed.

Sex toys[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

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