ဝက်သိန် ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉

နူ ဝဳကဳပဳဒဳယာ
အ​ညွှန်း​သို့ ခုန်ကူးရန် ရှာဖွေရန် ခုန်ကူးမည်
ဗီုရုပ်ဝက်သိန် ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ နူကဵု ဖရိဇြာ
ဗီုတိ မထ္ၜး ဍုင်မပဒတန် ဝက်သိန်ဂမၠိုင်
  Approved for general use, mass vaccination underway
  EUA granted, mass vaccination underway
  EUA granted, limited vaccination
  Approved for general use, mass vaccination planned
  EUA granted, mass vaccination planned
  EUA pending

ဝက်သိန် ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ (အၚ်္ဂလိက်: COVID‑19 vaccine) ဂှ် ဒှ် ဝက်သိန် မပကဵု ညံင်ဒြဟတ်အိမ်မုန်မသ္ဂောအ်တီ သွက်ဂွံဒစဵုဒစး ယဲကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉။ ကိုပ်ကၠာ ကပ်ယဲကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ ဟွံကတဵုဒှ်ဏီဂှ်ရ၊ တၠပညာတအ် ကၠောန်ပ္တိတ်လဝ် ဝက်သေန် သွက်ဂွံဗတိုက် ကဝ်ရဝ်နာဝဳရုသ် မပကဵု ညံင်ဂွံဒှ်ယဲသာ (SARS) ကေုာံ ယဲမာ (MERS)တုဲ တၠပညာတအ် တီကၠိုဟ်လဝ် ပရူလဒက်ပ္တန် ကေုာံ တၠုင်လအာ ကဝ်ရဝ်နာဝဳရုသ်ရ။ ကာလ ကဝ်ရဝ်နာဝဳရုသ်ဂကူတၞဟ် မပကဵု ညံင်ဂွံဒှ် ယဲကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ မကတဵုဒှ် ပ္ဍဲတမ်သၞာံ ၂၀၂၀ ဂှ် ညးတအ် စဂစာန်ကၠောန် ဝက်သိန်-ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉။

စိုပ်ၜိုတ် လဒေါဝ်ဒဳဇြေမ်ဗါ ၂၀၂၀ ဂှ် လၟောဝ်ဝက်သိန် ၅၇ ဂှ် ဂစာန်ကၠောန် ပဒၟံင်သုတေသနဂဥုဲတုဲ ပၞောဝ်တအ်ဂှ် ၄၀ ဂှ် နွံဒၟံင် ကဆံင်ကာလစွမ် ပထမ - ဒုတိယတုဲ ၁၇ ဂှ် နွံဒၟံင် ကဆံင်ကာလစွမ် ဒုတိယ - တတိယ။ ပ္ဍဲကဆံင်ကာလစွမ်တတိယဂှ် ဝက်သိန် ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ ဗွဲမဂၠိုင် ကၠောန်ကမၠောန် ၜိုတ် ၉၅% သွက်ဂွံစဵုဒၞာ ယဲကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉။[၁] ဝက်သိန်လ္ၚဵုတအ်ဂှ် ဍုင်လ္ၚဵု ပဒတန်တုဲ ဝက်သိန်လ္ၚဵုတအ်ဂှ် ဍုင်လ္ၚဵု ဟွံပဒတန်ရ။ သီုဖအိုတ် မဂွံဒုင်ပဒတန် နကဵု အေဂျေန်သဳ ထတ်ယုက်ဍုင်တအ်ဂှ် နွံ မသုန် မပ္တံကဵု တဝ်ဇြဳနာမေရန် (Tozinameran) မကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် နူကဵု ဖြိဇြေရ်-ဗဳသြတေက် (Pfizer–BioNTech)၊ ဗဳဗဳဗ်-ကောဝ် (BBIBP-CorV) မကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် နူကဵု သဳနဝ်ဖာမ် (Sinopharm)၊ ကဝ်ရဝ်နာဝက် (CoronaVac) မကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် နူကဵု သဳနဝ်ဝက် (Sinovac)၊ အာမ်အာနာ-၁၂၇၃ (mRNA-1273) မကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် နူကဵု မဝ်ဒေရ်နာ (Moderna) ကေုာံ ဂမ်-ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-ဝက် (Gam-COVID-Vac) မကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် နူကဵု အေန်သတဳကျုတ်သုတေသနဂမလေယာ (Gamaleya Research Institute)။

ဖြိဇြေရ်၊ မဝ်ဒေရ်နာ ကေုာံ သြသတြဇြေနေက (AstraZeneca) တအ် ဟီုလဝ် ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၂၀၂၁ မ္ဂး ညးတအ် ကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် လၟိဟ် ၅.၃ ဗဳလဳယာန် သွုင် မာန်တုဲ ကလိဂွံ မၞိဟ်ၜိုတ် ၃ ဗဳလဳယာန်မာန် (မၞိဟ်မွဲမ္ဂး ဒးထ္ပက် ၂ သွုင်/တၞိင် သွက်ဂွံစဵုဒၞာ ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉)၊ ပ္ဍဲဂိတုဒဳဇြေမ်ဗါဂှ် နူကဵု ဍုင်နာနာတအ် ဗကန်လဝ် နူကဵုဌာနပ္တိတ်ဝက်သိန်တအ် လၟိဟ် ၁၀ ဗဳလဳယာန်ပြင်င်[၂] ကဝက်ပြင်င်ဂှ် ဍုင်ပိုန်ဒြပ်ဇၞော်မောဝ်တအ် ဗကန်လဝ်တုဲ ဟီုကဵုလၟိဟ်မၞိဟ်ဂၠးကဝ်မ္ဂး ဍုင်သေဋ္ဌဳတအ်ဂှ် လၟိဟ်မၞိဟ် နွံ ၁၄% ဓဝ်ရ။[၃] ဍုင်ဗွဲမဂၠိုင်တအ်ဂှ် ဖျေဟ်လၟေင်ကမၠောန် ထပက်ဝက်သိန် နကဵု မၞိဟ်ဗယု၊ ယဲဇမၠိင် မဒှ်မၞိဟ်အန္တရာယ်ဇၞော် ကုယဲကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ ကေုာံ အစာဂဥုဲ အစာသဝ်ဂှ် ကဵုထ္ပက်ကၠာရ။[၄]

လၟေင်ကမၠောန် ကေုာံ ဓလိုက်တမ်ရိုဟ်[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

ပ္ဍဲမွဲဒမြိပ်သၞာံ ၂၀၂၀ နူစ သၞာံမံက်၊ ယဲကပ်စကတဵုဒှ်ဂှ် ဌာနမကၠောန်ပ္တိတ်ဂဥုဲဂမၠိုင်၊ အလဵုအသဳဍုင် ကေုာံ ကမ္မဏဳမဆေင်ကဵုဇဳဝဗေဒ နူကဵု ရးနိဂီုနာနာ ပ္တိတ်အာရီု ဂစာန်ကၠောန်ကၠုင် သွက်ကလိဂွံ ဝက်သိန်ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ အိုတ်ရ။[၅] အတိုင် ဂကောံပံင်ကောံမခၞံဗဒှ်သွက်စဵုဒၞာကပ်ယဲ (Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations -CEPI) မဗမံက်ထ္ၜးလဝ်မ္ဂး ဂကောံမပါလုပ် ပ္ဍဲအရာမကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် ဝက်သိန်ဏအ်ဂှ် နူကဵု အမေရိသၟဝ်ကျာဂှ် ၜိုတ် ၄၀%၊ အာရှ ကဵု အဝ်သတြေလျာ ၃၀%၊ ဥရောပ ၂၆% တုဲ ပ္ဍဲအမေရိသၠုင်ကျာ ကဵု အာဖရိကဂှ် ပါလုပ်ညိညကီုရ။[၅][၆]

လၟောဝ်ဝက်သိန်မွဲမွဲ ဂွံကလိဂွံဇမၞးမာန်ဂှ် ဒးအိုတ်သြန် ဗွဲမဂၠိုင်ဂၠေင်ရ။ ဥပမာ ခရိတ်င္ၚုဟ်အိုတ် ပ္ဍဲ ကာလစွမ်မၞိဟ်အလန်ပထမဂှ်သၟးဂှ် ဒးအိုတ် သြန်ဒဝ်လာအမေရိကာန် အကြာ ၁၄ မဳလဳယာန်ကဵု ၂၅ မဳလဳယာန်။[၇][၈] ယဝ်ဒးပတုပ် နကဵုဥပမာမ္ဂး အခိင်ကာလ ကပ်ယဲအဳဗဝ်လာဝဳရုသ် (Ebola virus) မကတဵုဒှ် အကြာ ၂၀၁၃-၁၆ ဂှ် လၟောဝ်ဝက်သိန် သီုဖအိုတ် ဂစာန်ကၠောန် ၃၇ ဂှ် ဆဝက်သိန်မွဲဟေင် ကလိဂွံအခေါင်လာင်ဇြေန် သွက်ဂွံစကာ နဒဒှ် ဝက်သိန်၊ ညးမပ္တိတ်ဂှ် ခရိတ်စမ် ကာလစွမ်ဒုတိယ-တတိယဂှ် ဒးစကာသြန် ဒဝ်လာအမေရိကာန် ၜိုတ် ၁ ဗဳလဳယာန်။[၇]

ဂကောံ ရးနိဂီုနာနာ[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator ကေုာံ COVAX[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

ပရေင်ပံင်ကောံ ဂကောံဂၠးကဝ်နာနာ မပ္တံကဵု ဂကောံထတ်ယုက်ဂၠးကဝ် (WHO)၊ ဂကောံပံင်ကောံ သွက်ဂၠိုက်ဂၠာဲ အရာမဒစဵုဒစး ကပ်ယဲ(CEPI)၊ GAVI၊ Gates Foundation ကေုာံ သၟိင်ဍုင်ဂမၠိုင် ပံင်ကောံတုဲ ဒက်ပ္တန်လဝ် အေသဳတဳ (ACT) မဂွံအဓိပ္ပါယ် ကလိဂွံ ကပေါတ်သွက်ယဲကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ တအ် ပံင်ကောံတုဲ ဂၠာဲသြန်ဗွဝ် သွက်ဂွံထံက်ပင် ကမၠောန်လ္ၚတ်သုတေသန၊ ပ္တိတ်ကပေါတ်စွမ်ယဲ၊ ဂဥုဲလွဳ ကေုာံ ကဵုလာင်ဇြေန်ဝက်သိန် မဒှ်ပရေင်ကမၠောန် နကဵုက္ဍိုပ်လိက် "ကဝ်ဝဇ် ပိလ္လာရ် (COVAX Pillar)"။[၉][၁၀] နကဵု ကဝ်ဝက်ပိလ္လာရ်ဂှ် စွံလဝ် တင်ရန်တၟအ် ညံင်ဂွံကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် ဝက်သိန်ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ ဗွဲမဂၠိုင်တုဲ လအိတ်သၞာံ ၂၀၂၁ မ္ဂး ညံင်ဂွံပ္တိတ် စဵုကဵု ၂ ဗဳလဳယာန်သွုင် သွက်ဂွံစဵုဒၞာ သၟာကမၠောန်ထတ်ယုက် ပ္ဍဲကိုပ်စၞေဟ် (frontline healthcare workers) ကေုာံ မၞိဟ်အန္တရာယ်ဇၞော် ကုကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ ပ္ဍဲဍုင်ဒိုက်ဂတ်တအ်ရ။[၁၁][၁၂]

ဂိတုဒဳဇြေမ်ဗါ ၂၀၂၀ ဂှ် နကဵုအေသဳတဳ ပ္ကောံဂွံသြန်ဒဝ်လာအမေရိကာန် ၂.၄ ဗဳလဳယာန်တုဲ နကဵု ကဝ်ဝက် ကေုာံ CEPI ဂွံဆဵုကေတ် လၟောဝ်ဝက်သိန် ဒစိတ် ရ။ ဂကောံဏအ်ဂှ် ဒှ်ဂကောံဇၞော်အိုတ် မဆေင်ကဵု ပ္ဍဲအရာမပ္တိတ် ဝက်သိန် ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉တုဲ ပါလုပ်လဝ် သီုဖအိုတ် ဍုင် ၁၈၉ ရးနိဂီု။[၁၃][၁၄] သၞာံ ၂၀၂၀ လပါ်စဂှ် နကဵု ဂကောံထတ်ယုက်ဂၠးကဝ် ကလိဂွံ သြန်ထံက်ပင် နူကဵု ပန်စှ်ောဍုင် သြန်ဒဝ်လာအမေရိကာန် ၈ ဗဳလဳယာန် သွက်ဂွံကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် ဝက်သိန်ရ။[၁၅]

ဂိတုဂျူလာင်ဂှ် ဂကောံထတ်ယုက်ဂၠးကဝ် လလောင်တြး ဍုင် ၁၆၅ ဍုင် မပစၞးကု ကောန်မၞိဟ်ဂၠးတိ ၆၀% တုပ်စိုတ် အစဳအဇန်ကဝ်ဝက်တုဲ ကဵုလဝ် ဂတိပါင် တုပ်လဝ်စိုတ် ကၞောတ်သၞာံ ၂၀၂၁ မ္ဂး ကောန်ဍုင်ညးတအ် ၂၀% ဂှ် သ္ကလိဂွံ ဝက်သိန်ရောင်။[၁၆]

ဂကောံပံင်ကောံဂၠးကဝ် သွက်စဵုဒၞာယဲကမၠောအ် (The Global Research Collaboration for Infectious Disease Preparedness - GLoPID-R) ဂှ် ပံင်တောဲကၠောန် ကုဂကောံထတ်ယုက်ဂၠးကဝ် ကေုာံ ရးနိဂီုဂမၠိုင် သွက်ဂွံကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် ဝက်သိန် ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉။[၁၇][၁၈]တုဲပၠန် International Severe Acute Respiratory ကေုာံ Emerging Infection Consortium တအ်ဂှ် ဒှ်ဂကောံလ္ၚတ်မကဵုပရိုင်တင်ဂၞင် ပညာ ပ္ဍဲအရာမပသုတေသန ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ ကေုာံ ကဵုပညာကုညးဍုင်ကွာန်တအ် သီုကဵု ပ္ဍဲအရာမပရးဝက်သိန်တအ်ရ။[၁၉]

ပ္ဍဲ ၄ ဂျောန်ဂှ် ပူဂိုလ် ကေုာံ သၟိင်ဍုင်ဂမၠိုင် ကၠောန်ဗဒှ် ကောံဓရီုသကိုပ်သက သုမ္မိတ် (summit) ပ္ဍဲဍုင်လာန်ဒါန်၊ ယူကေ၊ ဂှ် မၞိဟ်နူ ၅၂ ဍုင် တိုန်စိုပ်၊ သကိုပ်သကဍုင် ၃၅ ဍုင်၊ နူကဵု ဂျဳ၇ တအ်ကီု သီုကဵု ဂျဳ၂၀ဂှ် ကလိဂွံ သြန်ဗွဝ် ၈ ဗဳလဳယာန် သွက်ဂွံထံက်ပင် မဟာမိတ်ဂၠးကဝ် သွက်ဝက်သိန် ကေုာံ အိမ်မုန် (Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation - GAVI) သွက်ဂွံကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် ဝက်သိန် ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉တုဲ ကဵုဂဥုဲဝက်သိန် ကုကောန်ၚာ် ၃၀၀ ဗဳလဳယာန် မနွံပ္ဍဲဍုင်ဒိုက်ဂတ်တအ် ပ္ဍဲအကြာသၞာံ ၂၀၁၅ ရ။[၂၀]သြန်ဒါန် ဂၠိုင်အိုတ် ၁.၆ ဗဳလဳယာန် နူကဵု The Gates Foundation[၂၁] ကေုာံ သြန်ပံင်ဗြိတိန် ၃၃၀ မဳလဳယာန် ဇၟာပ်သၞာံ ပွိုင် မသုန်သၞာံ နူကဵု အလဵုအသဳဗြိတိန် (မတုပ်သၟဟ်ကဵု ဒဝ်လာအမေရိကာန် ၂.၁ ဗဳလဳယာန် ပ္ဍဲ ဂျောန် ၂၀၂၀)။[၂၀]

ပ္ဍဲဒဳဇြေမ်ဗါ ဂှ် နကဵု Gates Foundation ဆက်ကဵုဒါန် သြန်ဒဝ်လာ ၂၅၀ မဳလဳယာန်ပၠန် သွက်ဂွံကဵု ကပေါတ်စွမ်ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉၊ လွဳယဲ ကေုာံ ဝက်သိန် သွက်ဍုင်ဒိုက်ဂတ် ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၂၀၂၁ တုဲ သြန်ဗွဝ်သီုဖအိုတ် ဒှ်အာ သြန်ဒဝ်လာအမေရိကာန် ၁.၇၅ ဗဳလဳယာန်။[၂၂][၂၃]

ကမၠောန်[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

လၟေင်အခိင် ဗွဲဓမ္မတာ မကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် ဝက်သိန်မွဲ နူစ စဵုကဵု ကမၠောန်တုဲဒှ်၊ မဒးကေတ်အခိင် အကြာ ၁၀ - ၁၅ သၞာံ

ဒဒှ်အတိက်[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

ကိုပ်ကၠာ ကပ်ယဲကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ ဟွံကတဵုဒှ်ဏီဂှ် ဝက်သိန် သွက်စဵုဒၞာယဲဂှ် ဟွံဂွံကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် သၞာံဗွဲမလအ်ရ။ တုဲပၠန် ဝက်သိန် ဒစဵုဒစး ကဝ်ရဝ်နာဝဳရုသ် သွက်မၞိဟ်ဂှ်လေဝ် ဟွံကေင် နွံကၠုင်လဝ်ရ။[၂၄] ဆဂး ဝက်သိန် ဒစဵုဒစး ကဝ်ရဝ်နာဝဳရုသ် သွက်တိရစ္ဆာန်ဂှ် ကေင်ပ္တိတ်လဝ်နွံ မပ္တံကဵု သၞာံ ၂၀၀၃ သွက်ဂစေံ၊ ကၠဵု ကေုာံ ဗ္ဂဲ။[၂၅] တုဲပၠန် ဝိက်သိန် မဒစဵုဒစး ဝဳရုသ်ကဝ်ရဝ်နာ ဗဳဇမတုပ် မပကဵု ညံင်မၞိဟ်ဂွံဒှ်ယဲ သာ(SARS) ကေုာံ ယဲမာ(MERS)ကေင်နွံကၠုင်လဝ်ကီုရ။ ဝက်သိန် ဒစဵုဒစး ယဲသာ[၂၆] ကဵု ယဲမာ[၂၇]ဂှ်လေဝ် ဟွံကေင်စမ်လဝ် မၞိဟ် ဆစမ်လဝ် ကဵုတိရစ္ဆာန်သၟးရ။

အတိုင်လိက်မပ္တိတ်လဝ်မ္ဂး ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၂၀၀၅ ကဵု ၂၀၀၆ မ္ဂး သွက်ဂွံကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် ဝက်သိန် ကေုာံ ဂဥုဲလွဳယဲသာဂှ် ဒှ်လဝ် အရာကိစ္စဇၞော် သၟိင်ဍုင်တအ်ကီုရ။[၂၈][၂၉][၃၀]ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၂၀၂၀ ဂှ် ဂဥုဲ ကေုာံ ဝက်သိန် သွက်ဂွံလွဳ ကေုာံ သွက်စဵုဒၞာ ယဲသာ ပ္ဍဲမၞိဟ် မကၠောန်ကမၠောန်ဇေတ်တ်ဂှ် ဟွံကလိဂွံဏီရ။[၃၁][၃၂]

တုဲပၠန် ဝက်သိန် စဵုဒၞာယဲမာလေဝ် ဟွံမဲဏီကီုရ။[၃၃] ကာလ ယဲမာကတဵုဒှ်ဂှ် တင်ဂၞင်သုတေသန မပလဝ် ပ္ဍဲအခိင်ယဲသာဂှ် ဒှ်အထံက်အရီုရောင် သွက််ဂွံကၠောန်ဗဒှ် ဝက်သိန်ရောင်ဂှ် စၟဳကေတ်လဝ်ကီုရ။[၃၁][၃၄] ၜိုတ်ဂိတုမာတ် ၂၀၂၀ ဂှ် ဝက်သိန်ယဲမာလဵုမွဲလေဝ် ဟွံစိုပ်ကဆံင် ကာလစွမ်ပထမ သွက်ဂွံစမ်မၞိဟ်ဏီ၊[၃၅] တုဲပၠန် ဂဥုဲတၞဟ်ပိဂှ် ဒှ်အခိင်အဃောမကၠောန်ဗဒှ် ဇၞော်ပၟဝ်ဒၟံင်၊ ဂဥုဲတအ်ဂှ် ChAdOx1-MERS, BVRS-GamVac ကေုာံ MVA-MERS-S တအ်ရ။[၃၆]

ကမၠောန် အလန်ကိုပ်ကၠာ[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

ကြဴနူ မဂွံတီကေတ် ကဝ်ရဝ်နာဝဳရုသ် ကၞာတ်ကၠောအ်မၞိဟ် ပ္ဍဲ ဒဳဇြေမ်ဗါ ၂၀၁၉၊[၃၇]သဏ္ဌာန်ဗဳဇ ကဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ ဂှ် ဗၟံက်ထ္ၜးမာန် ပ္ဍဲကဵု ၁၁ ဇာန်နဝါရဳ ၂၀၂၀တုဲ ဂကောံမၞိဟ်ဂၠးတိ လလောင်တြး သွက်ဂွံပလေဝ်စ ယဲကမၠောအ်ကမၞာန်တုဲ သ္ဒးကၠောန်ဗဒှ် ဝက်သိန် သွက်ဂွံ ဒစဵုဒစးယဲဏအ်ရောင်။[၆][၃၈][၃၉]

ၜိုတ် ဂိတုဖေဖဝ်ဝါရဳ ၂၀၂၀ နကဵု ဂကောံထတ်ယုက်ဂၠးကဝ်ဟီု၊ ဝက်သိန် ဒစဵုဒစး ယဲသာ၂ (SARS-CoV-2) (အခိင်ဂှ် ကော်စ ယဲသာ၂) အပ္ဍဲ ပွိုင် ၁၈ ဂိတုဏအ် ကလိဂွံဟွံမာန်။[၄၀] ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၂၀၂၀ လပါ်စဂှ် လၟိဟ်မၞိဟ်စမၠောအ် ယဲဝဝ်ဝိဒ်-၁၉ ဂှ် ဂၠိုင်ကၠုင်တုဲ ဂကောံသၟိင်ဍုင်ဂမၠိုင် ကေုာံ ဂကောံထတ်ယုက်ဂၠးကဝ်တအ် ချပ်ဂၞန်ရေင်သကအ် ညံင်သဂွံ ဝက်သိန် နကဵုဗွဲပရဟ်မာန်ဂှ် ဒးကၠောန်ရ။[၄၁]

ပ္ဍဲဂိတုဨပြဳ ၂၀၂၀ ဂှ် နကဵု ဂကောံထတ်ယုက်ဂၠးကဝ် တော်ကေတ် သွက်ဂွံကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် ဝက်သိန်ဂှ် ဒးစကာသြန် ဒဝ်လာအမေရိကာန် ၈ ဗဳလဳယာန်။[၄၁]

ၜိုတ်ဂိတု ဨပြဳ ၂၀၂၀ "ကမ္မဏဳ ကေုာံ အေန်သတဳကျုတ် ကြပ်ပေင် ၈၀ နူကဵု ၁၉ ရးနိဂီု" ဂှ် ကၠောန်ဒၟံင် သွက်ကလိဂွံ ဝက်သိန်ရ။[၄၂] ပ္ဍဲကဵု ဂိတုဨပြဳဂှ်ရ CEPI တော်ကေတ် လၟောဝ်ဝက်သိန်သီုဖအိုတ်ဂှ် ၜိုတ်တြဴဂှ် နကဵုဂကောံပံင်ကောံဂၠးကဝ် ရုဲစှ် သွက်ဂွံကၠောန် ကာလစွမ်ဒုတိယ-တတိယ၊ ဂွံဂွံ လာင်ဇြေန် ဂွံကလိဂွံဇမၞးမာန်ဂှ် အောန်အိုတ် ဒးစကာသြန် အမေရိကာန်ဒဝ်လာ ၂ ဗဳလဳယာန်။[၅][၄၃][၂၄] သမ္ၚေဝ်တၞဟ်တအ် ညာတ်ကေတ် လၟောဝ်ဝက်သိန် ၁၀ နွံပၟိက် သွက်ဂွံဇၞော်ပၟဝ် ကိုပ်ကၠာဟွံဂွံစိုပ် ကဆံင်လက္ကရဴအိုတ် သွက်ကလိဂွံလာင်ဇြေန်ရ။[၂၄]

ဝက်သိန်ဂမၠိုင်[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

စိုပ် ၂၁ ဒဳဇြေမ်ဗါ ဂှ် ရးနိဂီုဂမၠိုင် ကေုာံ ကၟိန်ဍုင်ပံင်ကောံဥရောပ (အဳယူ)[၄၄] ကဵုအခေါင် ကေုာံ ပဒတန် ဝက်သေန် တဝ်ဇြိနမေရန် (tozinameran) ဗွဲမဂၠိုင် ကော်စ ဖရိဇြေရ်-ဗဳသြတေက် (Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine)။ ဍုင်ဗာရိုန် (Bahrain) ကဵု ဍုင်ပံင်ကောံအာရာပ် ဣမိရာတ် (United Arab Emirates) ပဒတန် ကဵုအခေါင်သွံ ဗွဲပရဟ် ကု BBIBP-CorV မကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် နူကဵု သိနဝ်ဖာမ် (Sinopharm) မဒှ်ဂကောံပ္တိတ်ဂဥုဲကြုက်ရ။[၄၅][၄၆]ဒဳဇြေမ်ဗါ ၁၆ ဂှ် နကဵု ကၟိန်ဍုင်ဨကရာဇ်ယူကေ မၞိဟ်ဂွံထ္ပက် ဝက်သိန် ၁၃၈,၀၀၀ တၠ မဒှ်သတ္တဟကိုပ်ကၠာအိုတ် မစထ္ပက်ဝက်သိန်ဂှ်ရ။[၄၇] ဒဳဇြေမ်ဗါ ၁၁၊ ၂၀၂၀ ဂှ် နကဵု ရးနိဂီုပံင်ကောံအမေရိကာန် ကဵုအခေါင် ပဒတန် ဗွဲပရဟ် ကုတဝ်ဇြိနမေရန်။[၄၈] သတ္တာဟဂတဂှ် ညးတအ် ပဒတန် ကု mRNA-1273 မကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် နူကဵု မဝ်ဒေရ်နာဝိသိန် (Moderna vaccine)ရ။[၄၉][၅၀][၅၁]

ဝက်သိန်မွဲမွဲ ကၠောန်လဝ်တုဲ ဒးစမ်ၜတ် ပိကဆံင်၊ ညးကော်စ ကာလစွမ်ပထမ၊ ကာလစွမ်ဒုတိယ၊ ကေုာံ ကာလစွမ်တတိယ။ ကာလစွမ်ပထမဂှ် စမ်ရံင် ဂဥုဲဂှ် ကဵုအန္တရာယ် ကုမၞိဟ်မာန်ဟွံမာန် ကေုာံ မွဲသွုင်မ္ဂး ဂလိုင်လဵုဂွံစုတ်ရ။ ပ္ဍဲကာလဂှ်မ္ဂး ညးစမ် မၞိဟ်ပရေင်ထတ်ယုက်ထတ်တ် လၟိဟ်ၜိုတ် ၜါပိဒါဇြေန် (ၜိုတ် ပိစှ်ော)။ ကာလစွမ်ဒုတိယဂှ် အတိုင်သွဟ်မကလိဂွံ နူကဵုကာလစွမ်ပထမဂှ် ပညဳပညပ် ပလေဝ်တုဲ ဆက်စမ် မၞိဟ်မဂၠိုင်ကဵုကၠံ (သၟဝ်လ္ၚီ)။[၅၂][၅၃]ကာလစွမ် ပထမ-ဒုတိယ ဂှ် စမ်မဆေင်ကဵု ပရေင်ဂီုကၠီု ကေုာံ ဒြဟတ်အိမ်မုန် ဗွဲမဂၠိုင် မစမ် အစောမ်သတ္တိဂဥုဲ ကေုာံ အရာမကတဵုဒှ်မာန် မသ္ၚေဝ်ဂၠေပ် ဗွဲမချိုတ်ပၠိုတ်ရ။[၅၃]ကာလစွမ်တတိယဂှ်မ္ဂး ဒးစမ်ၜတ် မၞိဟ်ဂၠိုင်ဂၠိုင် နကဵုမၞိဟ်နာနာသာ်၊ မၞိဟ်အာယုက်ဇၞော်၊ မၞိဟ်အာယုက်ဍောတ်၊ မၞိဟ်ပရေင်ထတ်ယုက် ဍိုန်လျ၊ မၞိဟ်ပရေင်ထတ်ယုက်ခိုဟ်၊ တုဲပၠန် မၞိဟ်သွက်ဂွံၜတ်ကၞာတ် မကော်ဂး control group၊ ဝက်သိန်ၜိုတ်လဵု ကၠောန်ကမၠောန် ပ္ဍဲအရာဒစဵုဒစး ယဲဂှ်ရ။[၅၂][၅၃] သွဟ်ပွံက်ဝက်သိန် ဂလိုင်လဵုဂီုကၠီု၊ ဂလိုင်လဵုမကၠောန်ကမၠောန် ကေုာံ စကာ နဒဒှ် ဂဥုဲဂွံ ဟွံဂွံတအ်ဂှ် ဒုင်သဇိုင် ကုသွဟ် နူကဵုကာလစွမ်တတိယဏအ်ရ။[၅၄][၅၅][၅၆]

ဝက်သိန်ဂမၠိုင် မဂွံလဝ် အခေါင် ကေုာံ ဒတန်[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

ဝက်သိန်ဂမၠိုင် မဂွံလဝ် အခေါင် သွက်ကာပရဟ် ဟွံသေင်မ္ဂး ဒတန် သွက်ဂွံစကာ
Vaccines authorized for emergency use or approved for full use
ဝက်သိန်ဂမၠိုင်
ညးမကၠောန် ကေုာံ ညးမဒုင်ပစ္စဲ
Vaccine candidates,
developers, and sponsors
ကွတ်
Technology
ကာလစွမ် လၟုဟ်
Current phase (participants)
ကာလစွမ် မစိုပ်ဒတုဲ (ညးမပါလုပ်ဂမၠိုင်)
မကၠောန်ကမၠောန် ပ္ဍဲအိမ်မုန်
Completed phase[lower-alpha ၁] (participants)
Authorization
BBIBP-CorV[၅၇]
Sinopharm: Beijing Institute of Biological Products, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (vero cells) Phase III (၄၈၀၀၀)
Randomized, double-blind, parallel placebo-controlled, to evaluate safety and protective efficacy.
Location(s): United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Jordan,[၅၈] Argentina,[၅၉] Morocco,[၆၀] Peru[၆၁]
Duration: Jul 2020 – Jul 2021
Phase I–II (၃၂၀)
Location(s): China
Duration: Apr 2020 – Jun 2020


Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine
Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology
Adenovirus vector vaccine (recombinant adenovirus type 5 and 26 vector) Phase III (၄၀,၀၀၀)
Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety.[၇၅]
Location(s): Russia, Belarus,[၇၆] India,[၇၇][၇၈] Venezuela,[၇၉] UAE[၈၀]
Duration: Aug 2020 – May 2021
Phase I–II (၇၆)
Location(s): Russia
Duration: Jun 2020[၈၁] – Sep 2020
Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine (Comirnaty)[၁၀၀][၁၀၁][၁၀၂]
BioNTech, Pfizer
RNA vaccine (modRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles) Phase III (၄၃,၄၄၈)
Randomized, placebo-controlled.
Location(s): Germany, United States
Duration: Jul 2020 – Nov 2020[၁၀၃][၁၀၄]
Phase I–II (၄၅)
Duration: May 2020 –
Moderna COVID-19 vaccine[၁၄၇][၁၄၈]
Moderna, NIAID, BARDA, CEPI
RNA vaccine (modRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles) Phase III (၃၀၀၀၀)
Interventional; randomized, placebo-controlled study for efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity.
Location(s): United States
Duration: Jul 2020 – Oct 2022
Phase I–II (၇၂၀)[၁၄၉][၁၅၀]
Location(s): United States
Duration: Mar 2020 – Nov 2021
Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine[lower-alpha ၂][lower-alpha ၃][၁၆၈][၁၆၉][၁၇၀]
University of Oxford, AstraZeneca, CEPI
Adenovirus vector vaccine (modified chimpanzee adenovirus vector, ChAdOx1) Phase III (၃၀၀၀၀)
Interventional; randomized, placebo-controlled study for efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity.[၁၇၁]
Location(s): Brazil (5,000),[၁၇၂] United Kingdom, India[၁၇၃]
Duration: May 2020 – Aug 2021
Phase I–II (၅၄၃)
EpiVacCorona [ထာမ်ပလိက်:Separated entries][၁၉၇]
Vector
Peptide vaccine[၁၉၇] Phase III (၄၀,၀၀၀)
Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety
Location(s): Russia[၁၉၈]
Duration: Nov 2020 – Dec 2021
Phase I–II (၁၀၀)
Simple, blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity[၁၉၇]
Location(s): Russia
Duration: Jul 2020[၁၉၇] – Sep 2020[၁၉၉]
CoronaVac[၂၀၄][၂၀၅][၂၀၆]
Sinovac
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine Phase III (၃၃,၆၂၀)
Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy and safety.
Location(s): Brazil (15,000);[၂၀၇] Chile (3,000);[၂၀၈] Indonesia (1,620); Turkey (13,000)[၂၀၉]
Duration: Jul 2020 – Oct 2021 in Brazil; Aug 2020 – Jan 2021 in Indonesia
Phase II (၆၀၀)
Location(s): China
Duration: May 2020 –
Ad5-nCoV (Convidicea)
CanSino Biologics, Beijing Institute of Biotechnology of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences
Adenovirus vector vaccine (recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector) Phase III (၄၀,၀၀၀)
Global multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy, safety and immunogenicity.
Location(s): China, Argentina, Chile,[၂၁၇] Mexico,[၂၁၈] Pakistan,[၂၁၉] Russia,[၂၂၀] Saudi Arabia[၂၂၁][၂၂၂]
Duration: Mar. – Dec. 2020, China; Sep. 2020 – Dec. 2021, Pakistan; Sep. 2020 – Nov. 2020, Russia[၂၂၀]
Phase II (၅၀၈)
BBV152 (Covaxin)
Bharat Biotech, Indian Council of Medical Research
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine Phase III (၂၅၈၀၀)
Randomised, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled[၂၂၅]
Location(s): India[၂၂၆]
Duration: Nov 2020 – Mar 2021
Phase I (၃၇၅)

လၟောဝ်ဝက်သိန်ဂမၠိုင် Vaccine candidates[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

လၟောဝ်ဝက်သိန် ကဝ်ဝိဒ်=၁၉ မနွံပ္ဍဲကာလစွမ် ပထမ-တတိယ
COVID‑19 candidate vaccines in Phase I–III trials[၂၂၇][၂၂၈][၂၂၉]
လၟောဝ်ဝက်သေန်ဂမၠိုင်
ညးမကၠောန်ဗဒှ် ကေုာံ ညးမဒုင်ပစ္စဲ
Vaccine candidates,
developers, and sponsors
ကွတ်
Technology
ကာလစွမ် လၟုဟ်
Current phase (participants)
design
ကာလစွမ်မတုဲဒှ်
Completed phase[lower-alpha ၄] (participants)
Immune response
မကဵုအခေါင်စကာ နဒဒှ် ကာတၟေင်
Emergency use authorization
Ad26.COV2.S[၂၃၀][၂၃၁]

Janssen Pharmaceutica (Johnson & Johnson), BIDMC

Non-replicating viral vector (adenovirus serotype 26) Phase III (၄၀၀၀၀)
Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled

Temporarily paused on 13 October 2020, due to an unexplained illness in a participant.[၂၃၂] Johnson & Johnson announced, on 23 October, that they are preparing to resume the trial in the US.[၂၃၃][၂၃၄]
Location(s): United States, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa and Ukraine
Duration: Jul 2020 – 2023

Phase I–II (၁၀၄၅) Pending
NVX-CoV2373[၂၃၇]
Novavax
SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein nanoparticle with adjuvant Phase III (၄၅၀၀၀)
Randomised, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial[၂၃၈]
Location(s): UK, India (15000);[၂၃၉] US, Mexico (30000)[၂၄၀]
Duration: Sep 2020 – Jan 2021 (UK, India); Dec 2020 – Mar 2021 (US, Mexico)
Phase I–II (၁၃၁) IgG and neutralizing antibody response with adjuvant after booster dose[၂၄၁] Pending
BBV152

Bharat Biotech, Indian Council of Medical Research

Trade name:Covaxin

Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Phase III (၂၅၈၀၀)
Randomised, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled[၂၄၃]
Location(s): India
Duration: Nov 2020 – Mar 2022
Phase I (၃၇၅) Dose-dependent neutralizing antibody response on two-dose schedule.

Pending Phase II reports[၂၄၄]

Pending
CoVLP[၂၄၆]

Medicago, GSK

Recombinant, plant-based virus-like particles[lower-alpha ၅] with GSK adjuvant Phase II–III (၃၀,၆၁၂)
Event-driven, randomized, observer blinded, placebo-controlled[၂၄၈]
Location(s): Canada
Duration: Nov 2020 – Apr 2022
Phase I (၁၈၀)
Neutralizing antibodies at day 42 after the first injection (day 21 after the second injection) were at levels 10x that of COVID-19 survivors.
ZF2001 [၂၂၇]
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical Co. Ltd.

Trade name: RBD-Dimer

Recombinant subunit vaccine Phase III (၂၉,၀၀၀)
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled[၂၄၉]
Location(s): China, Ecuador, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Uzbekistan[၂၅၀][၂၅၁]
Duration: Dec 2020 – Apr 2022
Phase II (၉၀၀)
Interventional; randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled[၂၅၂]
Location(s): Chongqing
Duration: Jun 2020 – Sep 2021
Zorecimeran (CVnCoV)
CureVac, CEPI
modRNA Phase III (၃၆၅၀၀)[၂၅၃]
Phase 2b/3: Multicenter efficacy and safety trial in adults
Location(s): Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Dominican Republic, France, Germany, Mexico, Netherlands, Panama, Peru, Spain
Duration: Nov 2020 – ?
Phase I–II (၉၄၄)[၂၅၄][၂၅၅]
Phase 1 (284): Partially blind, controlled, dose-escalation to evaluate safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity.

Phase 2a (660):Partially observer-blind, multicenter, controlled, dose-confirmation.
Location(s): Belgium (P1), Germany (P1), Panama (2a), Peru (2a)
Duration: Jun 2020 – Oct 2021

IIBR-100[၂၅၆]
The Israel Institute for Biological research

Trade name: Brilife

Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Phase II (၁၀၀၀)[၂၅၇]
Location(s): Israel
Duration: Dec 2020 – spring 2021
Phase I (၈၀)[၂၅၆]
Subjects (18-55 years old) randomly receiving a single administration of IIBR-100 at the low, mid, or high dose of saline or two administrations at a low dose, or saline, 28 days apart.
Location(s): Israel
Duration: Oct – Nov 2020
INO-4800[lower-alpha ၆][၂၅၈][၂၅၉]
Inovio, CEPI, Korea National Institute of Health, International Vaccine Institute
DNA plasmid delivered by electroporation Phase I–II (၄၀)
Location(s): United States, South Korea
Duration: Apr–Nov 2020
Pending Phase I report
EpiVacCorona[၁၉၇]
Vector
Vaccine based on peptide antigens[၁၉၇] Phase I–II (၁၀၀)
Simple, blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity[၁၉၇]
Location(s): Russia
Duration: Jul 2020[၁၉၇] – ?
Pending Phase I–II report
Unnamed[၂၆၀]
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Phase I–II (၉၄၂)
Randomized, double-blinded, single-center, placebo-controlled
Location(s): Chengdu
Duration: Jun 2020 – Sep 2021
AG0301-COVID‑19[၂၆၁]
AnGes Inc.,[၂၆၂] AMED
DNA plasmid Phase I–II (၃၀)
Non-randomized, single-center, two doses
Location(s): Osaka
Duration: Jun 2020 – Jul 2021
Lunar-COV19/ARCT-021[၂၆၃][၂၆၄]

Arcturus Therapeutics

mRNA Phase I–II (၉၂)
Randomized, double-blinded
Location(s): Singapore
Duration: Aug 2020 – ?
COVID‑19/aAPC[၂၆၅]
Shenzhen Genoimmune Medical Institute[၂၆၆]
Lentiviral vector with minigene modifying aAPCs Phase I (၁၀၀)
Location(s): Shenzhen
Duration: Mar 2020 – 2023
LV-SMENP-DC[၂၆၇]
Shenzhen Genoimmune Medical Institute[၂၆၆]
Lentiviral vector with minigene modifying DCs Phase I (၁၀၀)
Location(s): Shenzhen
Duration: Mar 2020 – 2023
LNP-nCoVsaRNA[၂၆၈]
MRC clinical trials unit at Imperial College London
mRNA Phase I (၁၀၅)
Randomized trial, with dose escalation study (15) and expanded safety study (at least 200)
Location(s): United Kingdom
Duration: Jun 2020 – Jul 2021
ZyCoV-D[၂၆၉]

Cadila Healthcare

DNA plasmid expressing SARS-CoV-2 S protein Phase I–II (၁၀၀၀)
Interventional; randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled[၂၇၀][၂၇၁]
Location(s): India
Duration: Jul 2020 – Apr 2021
GX-19[၂၇၂][၂၇၃]
Genexine consortium,[၂၇၄] International Vaccine Institute
DNA Phase I (၄၀)
Location(s): Seoul
Duration: Jun 2020 – Jun 2022
SCB-2019[၂၇၅][၂၇၆]
Clover Biopharmaceuticals,[၂၇၇] GSK
Spike protein trimeric subunit with GSK adjuvant Phase I (၁၅၀)
Location(s): Perth
Duration: Jun 2020 – Mar 2021
COVAX-19[၂၇၈]
Vaxine Pty Ltd[၂၇၉]
Recombinant protein Phase I (၄၀)
Location(s): Adelaide
Duration: Jun 2020 – Jul 2021
Unnamed[၂၈၀]
PLA Academy of Military Science, Walvax Biotech[၂၈၁]
mRNA Phase I (၁၆၈)
Location(s): China
Duration: Jun 2020 – Dec 2021
SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp/V451[၂၈၂][၂၈၃]
UQ, Syneos Health, CEPI, Seqirus
Molecular clamp stabilized spike protein with MF59 Phase I (၁၂၀)
Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging
Location(s): Brisbane
Duration: Jul–Oct 2020
N/A
Testing and development terminated in December 2020 due to false positive HIV test found among participants

နိဿဲ[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

  1. Santiago, Jahleah (2020-12-19). A side-by-side comparison of the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines (in en-US).
  2. "How COVID vaccines are being divvied up around the world Canada leads the pack in terms of doses secured per capita" (30 November 2020). Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03370-6. PMID 33257891. 
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Footnotes[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

  1. ၁.၀ ၁.၁ US authorization also includes the three sovereign nations in the Compact of Free Association: Palau, the Marshall Islands, and Micronesia.[၁၃၀][၁၃၁]

ဆက်ဗှ်[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]

လေန် မ္ၚး[ပလေဝ်ဒါန် | ပလေဝ်ဒါန် တမ်ကၞက်]


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